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Glucose intolerance in the West African Diaspora: a skeletal muscle fiber type distribution hypothesis.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21382179     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
In the United States black Americans are largely descendants of West African slaves; they have a higher relative proportion of obesity and experience a higher prevalence of diabetes than white Americans. However, obesity rates alone cannot explain the higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is characterised by insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. We hypothesise that the higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes in African Americans (as compared to white Americans) is facilitated by an inherited higher percentage of skeletal muscle fiber type II and a lower percentage of skeletal muscle fiber type I. Skeletal muscle fiber type II is less oxidative and more glycolytic than skeletal muscle fiber type I. A lower oxidative capacity is associated with a lower fat oxidation and a higher disposal of lipids, which is stored as muscular adipose tissue in higher amounts in black compared to white Americans. In physically active individuals, the influence of muscle fiber composition will not be as detrimental as in physically inactive individuals. This discrepancy is caused by the plasticity in skeletal muscle fiber characteristics towards a higher activity of oxidative enzymes as a consequence of physical activity. We suggest that a higher percentage of skeletal muscle fiber type II combined with physical inactivity has an impact on insulin sensitivity and high prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Blacks of West African ancestry.
Authors:
Jannie Nielsen; Dirk Lund Christensen
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-3-7
Journal Detail:
Title:  Acta physiologica (Oxford, England)     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1748-1716     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-3-8     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101262545     Medline TA:  Acta Physiol (Oxf)     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Journal compilation © 2011 Scandinavian Physiological Society.
Affiliation:
Department of International Health, Immunology and Microbiology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
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