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Germ cells are not the primary factor for sexual fate determination in goldfish.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22824426     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
The presence of germ cells in the early gonad is important for sexual fate determination and gonadal development in vertebrates. Recent studies in zebrafish and medaka have shown that a lack of germ cells in the early gonad induces sex reversal in favor of a male phenotype. However, it is uncertain whether the gonadal somatic cells or the germ cells are predominant in determining gonadal fate in other vertebrate. Here, we investigated the role of germ cells in gonadal differentiation in goldfish, a gonochoristic species that possesses an XX-XY genetic sex determination system. The primordial germ cells (PGCs) of the fish were eliminated during embryogenesis by injection of a morpholino oligonucleotide against the dead end gene. Fish without germ cells showed two types of gonadal morphology: one with an ovarian cavity; the other with seminiferous tubules. Next, we tested whether function could be restored to these empty gonads by transplantation of a single PGC into each embryo, and also determined the gonadal sex of the resulting germline chimeras. Transplantation of a single GFP-labeled PGC successfully produced a germline chimera in 42.7% of the embryos. Some of the adult germline chimeras had a developed gonad on one side that contained donor derived germ cells, while the contralateral gonad lacked any early germ cell stages. Female germline chimeras possessed a normal ovary and a germ-cell free ovary-like structure on the contralateral side; this structure was similar to those seen in female morphants. Male germline chimeras possessed a testis and a contralateral empty testis that contained some sperm in the tubular lumens. Analysis of aromatase, foxl2 and amh expression in gonads of morphants and germline chimeras suggested that somatic transdifferentiation did not occur. The offspring of fertile germline chimeras all had the donor-derived phenotype, indicating that germline replacement had occurred and that the transplanted PGC had rescued both female and male gonadal function. These findings suggest that the absence of germ cells did not affect the pathway for ovary or testis development and that phenotypic sex in goldfish is determined by somatic cells under genetic sex control rather than an interaction between the germ cells and somatic cells.
Authors:
Rie Goto; Taiju Saito; Takahiro Takeda; Takafumi Fujimoto; Misae Takagi; Katsutoshi Arai; Etsuto Yamaha
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-7-20
Journal Detail:
Title:  Developmental biology     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1095-564X     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2012 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-7-24     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0372762     Medline TA:  Dev Biol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Affiliation:
Nanae Fresh Water Laboratory, Field Science Center for Northern Biosphere, Hokkaido University, Hokkaido 041-1105, Japan.
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