Document Detail


Genotoxicity and potential carcinogenicity of 2,4,6-TNT trinitrotoluene: structural and toxicological considerations.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  17243348     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Environmental contamination with 2,4,6-TNT (trinitrotoluene) represents a worldwide problem. Concern for carcinogenicity can be derived from chemically related compounds, especially the dinitrotoluenes. In the metabolism of TNT, the reductive routes are preponderant. The main urinary metabolites of TNT are 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene and 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene. In humans exposed to TNT, the formation of hemoglobin adducts of the amino-dinitrotoluenes is in general concordance with the ratio of urinary excretion. The variations in quantities of excreted metabolites among the different occupational cohorts studied are likely explained by the different routes of exposure to TNT, including dermal uptake. Most studies show that urinary excretion of the amino-dinitrotoluenes (4-amino-dinitrotoluene plus 2-amino-dinitrotoluene) in a range of 1 to 10 mg L(-1) (5-50 microM) are not uncommon--for instance in persons employed with the disposal of military waste. Trinitotoluene is mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100, with and without exogenous metabolic activation. Mutagenic activity has been found in urine from workers who were occupationally exposed to TNT. An unpublished 2-year study was reported in 1984 by the IIT Research Institute, Chicago, IL. Fischer 344 rats were fed diets containing 0.4, 2.0, 10, or 50 mg/kg TNT per day. In the urinary bladder, hyperplasia (12 of 47 animals p < .01) and carcinoma (11 of 47 animals, p < .05) were observed at significant levels in high-dose (50 mg kg(-1)) females and in one or two females, respectively, at 10 mg kg(-1). Taking all the available evidence together, the appropriate precautions should be taken.
Authors:
Hermann M Bolt; Gisela H Degen; Susanne B Dorn; Sabine Plöttner; Volker Harth
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Reviews on environmental health     Volume:  21     ISSN:  0048-7554     ISO Abbreviation:  Rev Environ Health     Publication Date:    2006 Oct-Dec
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2007-01-24     Completed Date:  2007-03-05     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0425754     Medline TA:  Rev Environ Health     Country:  Israel    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  217-28     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Institut für Arbeitsphysiologie an der Universität Dortmund (IfADo), Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, Dortmund, Germany. bolt@ifado.de
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Carcinogenicity Tests
Carcinogens / chemistry,  metabolism,  toxicity*
DNA Damage
Environmental Pollutants / chemistry,  metabolism,  toxicity*
Humans
Mutagenicity Tests
Mutagens / chemistry,  metabolism,  toxicity*
Occupational Exposure
Salmonella typhimurium / drug effects
Trinitrotoluene / chemistry,  metabolism,  toxicity*
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Carcinogens; 0/Environmental Pollutants; 0/Mutagens; 118-96-7/Trinitrotoluene

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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