Document Detail

Genomic structure and organization of kringles type 3 to 10 of the apolipoprotein(a) gene in 6q26-27.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  9322734     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] is a highly polymorphic glycoprotein covalently linked to the apolipoprotein B-100 of LDL in a particle called lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)]. High plasma levels of Lp(a) are associated with coronary as well as peripheral atherosclerosis. Plasma levels of Lp(a) show a remarkable variation ranging from 0.1 mg/dl to over 100 mg/dl. The apo(a) gene shows a size polymorphism which resides in the variable number of kringle domains which resemble plasminogen kringle IV. Ten different types of kringle IV repeats have been described, nine of which (kringle IV type 1 and type 3-10) are each supposed to be present in a single copy. The other kringles, namely kringle IV type 2 repeats, vary in number from 3 to 42 between apo(a) alleles and form the basis for the apo(a) size polymorphism. Although an inverse relationship has been observed between the number of kringle type 2 repeats and plasma levels of Lp(a), there are exceptions to this general finding. Indeed, several individuals have been described with similar apo(a) size alleles but very different plasma levels of Lp(a). Genetic studies have linked these differences to the apo(a) locus on 6q26-27, outlining the importance, besides the kringle type 2 repeats, of other regions of the apo(a) gene in contributing to the interindividual differences in the plasma concentration of Lp(a). One of the candidate regions is represented by the non-repeated type-3 to type-10 kringles which are invariably present in each apo(a) allele and whose structural integrity is playing a critical role in the correct assembly of the Lp(a) particle. Biochemical studies with recombinant wild type and mutagenized apo(a) cDNAs with several alterations of the non-repeated kringles have well documented this latter point. As a starting point to search for genetic variations in these kringles associated with different levels of Lp(a), we are presenting the genome organization of type-3 to 10 kringle along with specific PCR primers for easy analysis from genomic DNA. Restriction as well as partial sequencing analyses of the type-3 to 10 kringles region has also provided interesting clues as to the different evolutionary origin of these types of kringle with respect to the polymorphic type-2 kringles.
A Mihalich; P Magnaghi; L Sessa; M Trubia; F Acquati; R Taramelli
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Gene     Volume:  196     ISSN:  0378-1119     ISO Abbreviation:  Gene     Publication Date:  1997 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1997-10-30     Completed Date:  1997-10-30     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7706761     Medline TA:  Gene     Country:  NETHERLANDS    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1-8     Citation Subset:  IM    
IRCCS H. San Raffaele, Milan, Italy.
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MeSH Terms
Apolipoproteins A / blood,  genetics*
Bacteriophages / genetics
Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6*
Cloning, Molecular
Cosmids / genetics
Gene Amplification
Kringles / genetics*
Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods
Restriction Mapping
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Apolipoproteins A

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