Document Detail

Genome sequence of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus reveals mechanisms governing adaptation to a humic-rich ecological niche.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23045686     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Agaricus bisporus is the model fungus for the adaptation, persistence, and growth in the humic-rich leaf-litter environment. Aside from its ecological role, A. bisporus has been an important component of the human diet for over 200 y and worldwide cultivation of the "button mushroom" forms a multibillion dollar industry. We present two A. bisporus genomes, their gene repertoires and transcript profiles on compost and during mushroom formation. The genomes encode a full repertoire of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes similar to that of wood-decayers. Comparative transcriptomics of mycelium grown on defined medium, casing-soil, and compost revealed genes encoding enzymes involved in xylan, cellulose, pectin, and protein degradation are more highly expressed in compost. The striking expansion of heme-thiolate peroxidases and β-etherases is distinctive from Agaricomycotina wood-decayers and suggests a broad attack on decaying lignin and related metabolites found in humic acid-rich environment. Similarly, up-regulation of these genes together with a lignolytic manganese peroxidase, multiple copper radical oxidases, and cytochrome P450s is consistent with challenges posed by complex humic-rich substrates. The gene repertoire and expression of hydrolytic enzymes in A. bisporus is substantially different from the taxonomically related ectomycorrhizal symbiont Laccaria bicolor. A common promoter motif was also identified in genes very highly expressed in humic-rich substrates. These observations reveal genetic and enzymatic mechanisms governing adaptation to the humic-rich ecological niche formed during plant degradation, further defining the critical role such fungi contribute to soil structure and carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. Genome sequence will expedite mushroom breeding for improved agronomic characteristics.
Emmanuelle Morin; Annegret Kohler; Adam R Baker; Marie Foulongne-Oriol; Vincent Lombard; Laszlo G Nagy; Robin A Ohm; Aleksandrina Patyshakuliyeva; Annick Brun; Andrea L Aerts; Andrew M Bailey; Christophe Billette; Pedro M Coutinho; Greg Deakin; Harshavardhan Doddapaneni; Dimitrios Floudas; Jane Grimwood; Kristiina Hildén; Ursula Kües; Kurt M Labutti; Alla Lapidus; Erika A Lindquist; Susan M Lucas; Claude Murat; Robert W Riley; Asaf A Salamov; Jeremy Schmutz; Venkataramanan Subramanian; Han A B Wösten; Jianping Xu; Daniel C Eastwood; Gary D Foster; Anton S M Sonnenberg; Dan Cullen; Ronald P de Vries; Taina Lundell; David S Hibbett; Bernard Henrissat; Kerry S Burton; Richard W Kerrigan; Michael P Challen; Igor V Grigoriev; Francis Martin
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.     Date:  2012-10-08
Journal Detail:
Title:  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America     Volume:  109     ISSN:  1091-6490     ISO Abbreviation:  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.     Publication Date:  2012 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-10-24     Completed Date:  2013-01-07     Revised Date:  2013-07-11    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7505876     Medline TA:  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  17501-6     Citation Subset:  IM    
Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 1136 Université Henri Poincaré, Interactions Arbres/Micro-organismes, 54280 Champenoux, France.
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MeSH Terms
Adaptation, Physiological / genetics*
Agaricus / genetics*,  metabolism,  physiology
Evolution, Molecular
Genome, Fungal*
Lignin / metabolism
Reg. No./Substance:
11132-73-3/lignocellulose; 9005-53-2/Lignin
Erratum In:
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Mar 5;110(10):4146

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