Document Detail


Genetic modification of proteins in food.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  8959378     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Plant breeders have been extremely successful in improving the quality and yield of the major crops, while maintaining the safety of the food supply. This success has been achieved with very little understanding of the biochemical mechanisms that determine the selected traits. Each time a cross is made, tens of thousands of genes are mixed and reassorted, largely at random. The skill of the breeder lies in selecting the lines to be crossed and recognizing the preferred progeny, discarding those that lack the desirable trait or exhibit undesirable properties. With the advent of recombinant DNA technology, breeders have not only extended the range of biological materials from which genes can be accessed, but have also gained new insights into genome organization and gene structure as well as the nature and function of the proteins that those genes encode. Such knowledge affords exquisite specificity in altering the genetic makeup of new crop varieties. For example, resistance to insect pests can now be achieved through the addition of a single well-characterized gene, instead of introducing thousands of unwanted genes from a wild relative that code for uncharacterized and possibly toxic proteins that must be eliminated by generations of backcrossing and screening to recover a commercially acceptable insect-resistant line. The technology also affords unique opportunities to identify the individual components of foods that may cause allergies, and to remove them from food, or change them, so that the food can be consumed safely. A number of commercial products derived through genetic engineering have been approved through regulatory processes that address environmental and food safety concerns. These products are available, or will shortly be available, to growers, producers, and consumers. They will provide foods and feeds that are produced with fewer chemical inputs and have improved nutritional composition and quality.
Authors:
P R Day
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Critical reviews in food science and nutrition     Volume:  36 Suppl     ISSN:  1040-8398     ISO Abbreviation:  Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr     Publication Date:  1996  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1997-03-06     Completed Date:  1997-03-06     Revised Date:  2005-11-16    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8914818     Medline TA:  Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  S49-67     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Center for Agricultural Molecular Biology, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Biotechnology
DNA, Recombinant
Genes, Plant*
Plant Diseases / genetics
Plant Proteins / genetics*
Plants, Edible / genetics*
Transformation, Genetic
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/DNA, Recombinant; 0/Plant Proteins

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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