Document Detail

Genetic, hypothalamic and endocrine features of clinical and experimental obesity.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  1480757     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Obesity occurs in both clinical and animal forms in a variety of specific models which allow study of its underlining endocrine and mechanistic features. Among the neuroendocrine varieties of obesity, polycystic ovaries are probably the most common. The importance of the gonadal feedback system for regulation of food intake and obesity is indicated by the effects of castration in experimental animals which is a widely used mechanism for producing experimental obesity. Cushing syndrome and hypothalamic obesity are rare clinical syndromes. The current evidence suggests that there are two types of hypothalamic obesity from a mechanistic point of view--one associated with hyperphagia as a necessary and sufficient cause and a disturbance of the autonomic nervous system without hyperphagia as a second mechanism. Although genetic factors underlie most types of human obesity, there are several dymorphic forms of obesity including the Prader-Willy syndrome, Cohen's syndrome, Carpenter's syndrome, Ahlstrom's syndrome and the Bardet-Biedel syndrome. The Prader-Willi syndrome is characterized by obesity hypotonia hypogonadism and mental retardation. In animals, a dominant form of inheritance of obesity is seen in the yellow mouse. Current evidence suggests that this syndrome can be explained by reduced acetylation of MSH in the pituitary and/or hypothalamus. Several recessively inherited forms of obesity exist including the obese mouse, the diabetes mouse, fatty rat, the fat mouse, tubby mouse and the corpulent rat. In addition, there are a number of polygenic types of experimental obesity. The final mechanistic classification of obesity are those due to dietary manipulation. For both human beings and animals, a highly fat diet appears to be particularly problematic for the development of obesity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
G A Bray
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Progress in brain research     Volume:  93     ISSN:  0079-6123     ISO Abbreviation:  Prog. Brain Res.     Publication Date:  1992  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1993-02-11     Completed Date:  1993-02-11     Revised Date:  2007-11-14    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0376441     Medline TA:  Prog Brain Res     Country:  NETHERLANDS    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  333-40; discussion 340-1     Citation Subset:  IM    
Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70808.
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MeSH Terms
Cushing Syndrome / physiopathology
Disease Models, Animal
Hypogonadism / physiopathology
Obesity / genetics,  physiopathology*
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / physiopathology
Prader-Willi Syndrome / genetics,  physiopathology
Grant Support

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