Document Detail

Gender-related differences in muscle injury, oxidative stress, and apoptosis.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  18799987     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Due to its alleged antioxidant properties, 17beta-estradiol (E2) may protect against muscle injury, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. PURPOSE: This study sought to determine whether such mechanisms existed between genders for muscle injury, oxidative stress, and apoptosis after eccentric exercise. METHODS: Eight men and eight women (no oral contraceptive use; midluteal phase of menstrual cycle) performed 7 x 10 eccentric repetitions of the knee extensors at 150% 1RM. Strength, soreness, and blood samples were taken before exercise and 6, 24, 48, and 72 h after exercise while muscle samples were collected before and 6 and 24 h after exercise. Blood samples were assayed for free E2, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and 8-isoprostane (8-iso). Muscle samples were assayed for mitochondrial apoptosis (e.g., bax, bcl-2, cytochrome c, and cell death), total DNA content, and myofibrillar protein content. RESULTS: Men reported greater soreness levels at 24, 48, and 72 h after exercise, whereas strength changes were similar among genders. At baseline and independent of exercise, females had higher E2 (P < 0.001) and SOD in conjunction with lower 8-iso levels when compared with men. Bax increased in both genders, whereas bcl-2 increased only in women with no cytochrome c changes for either gender after exercise. The bax/bcl-2 ratio in women significantly decreased after 6 h (P = 0.03) and returned to baseline levels after 24 h. Men exhibited greater cell death at all time points (P < 0.05), whereas myofibrillar protein content and total DNA content decreased in both genders at 24 h after exercise. No changes in LDH were found (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Although more research is needed, differences between gender may provide greater endogenous protection against oxidative stress and apoptosis.
Chad Kerksick; Lem Taylor; Alison Harvey; Darryn Willoughby
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Medicine and science in sports and exercise     Volume:  40     ISSN:  1530-0315     ISO Abbreviation:  Med Sci Sports Exerc     Publication Date:  2008 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2008-09-18     Completed Date:  2008-12-30     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8005433     Medline TA:  Med Sci Sports Exerc     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1772-80     Citation Subset:  IM; S    
Applied Biochemistry and Molecular Physiology Laboratory, Health and Exercise Science Department, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Biopsy, Needle
Body Composition
DNA / metabolism
Dinoprost / analogs & derivatives,  blood
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Estradiol / blood,  physiology
L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / blood
Muscle Proteins / metabolism
Muscle, Skeletal / injuries*,  metabolism,  pathology
Oxidative Stress*
Sex Factors*
Superoxide Dismutase / blood
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Muscle Proteins; 27415-26-5/8-epi-prostaglandin F2alpha; 50-28-2/Estradiol; 551-11-1/Dinoprost; 9007-49-2/DNA; EC Dehydrogenase; EC Dismutase

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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