Document Detail

Gastrointestinal hormones and the regulation of β-cell mass.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21039588     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Type 2 diabetes occurs due to a relative deficit in β-cell mass or function. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), cholecystokinin (CCK), and gastrin are gastrointestinal hormones that are secreted in response to nutrient intake, regulating digestion, insulin secretion, satiety, and β-cell mass. In this review, we focus upon β-cell mass regulation. β-cell mass expands through β-cell proliferation and islet neogenesis; β-cell mass is lost via apoptosis. GLP-1 and GIP are well-studied gastrointestinal hormones and influence β-cell proliferation, apoptosis, and islet neogenesis. CCK regulates β-cell apoptosis and mitogenesis, and gastrin stimulates islet neogenesis. GLP-1 and GIP bind to G protein-coupled receptors and regulate β-cell mass via multiple signaling pathways. The protein kinase A pathway is central to this process because it directly regulates proliferative and anti-apoptotic genes and transactivates several signaling cascades, including Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinases. However, the signaling pathways downstream of G protein-coupled CCK receptors that influence β-cell mass remain unidentified. Gastrointestinal hormones integrate nutrient signals from the gut to the β-cell, regulating insulin secretion and β-cell mass adaptation.
Jeremy A Lavine; Alan D Attie
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review     Date:  2010-10-29
Journal Detail:
Title:  Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Volume:  1212     ISSN:  1749-6632     ISO Abbreviation:  Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.     Publication Date:  2010 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-11-24     Completed Date:  2010-12-14     Revised Date:  2014-11-13    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7506858     Medline TA:  Ann N Y Acad Sci     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  41-58     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
© 2010 New York Academy of Sciences.
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MeSH Terms
Cell Count
Cell Proliferation / drug effects
Gastrointestinal Hormones / metabolism,  pharmacology,  physiology*
Insulin-Secreting Cells / cytology*,  drug effects,  physiology
Islets of Langerhans / anatomy & histology*,  cytology,  drug effects,  physiology
Models, Biological
Organ Size / drug effects
Regeneration / drug effects,  physiology
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Gastrointestinal Hormones

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