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Gastrointestinal and hepatic manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21203902     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), characterized by inflammation of the synovium and surrounding structures, has a prevalence of 0.5-1%. Rheumatoid vasculitis (RV) is an inflammatory condition of the small- and medium-sized vessels that affects up to 5% of patients with RA with intestinal involvement in 10-38% of these cases. Clinically apparent RV of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, while rare, is often catastrophic, resulting in ischemic ulcers and bowel infarction. Vasculitis of the colon may present as pancolitis clinically similar to ulcerative colitis. Rectal biopsies that include submucosal vessels are positive for vasculitis in up to 40% of cases. Abnormal esophageal motility in RA may result in heartburn and dysphagia. Chronic atrophic gastritis may be associated with hypergastrinemia and hypo- or achlorhydria, promoting small bowel bacterial overgrowth. RA is the most common cause of secondary amyloidosis with GI symptoms in 22% of affected patients. Although amyloid is usually found in the liver, it is rarely evident clinically. Felty's syndrome occurs in less than 1% of patients with RA and is characterized by neutropenia and splenomegaly. The liver may be involved with portal fibrosis or nodular regenerative hyperplasia. Liver histology is abnormal in 92% of RA patients at autopsy, although the changes are usually mild without associated hepatomegaly. Drug-induced liver disease may occur with aspirin, sulfasalazine, and methotrexate. Significant liver damage is rare if the drug is discontinued or the patient is properly monitored. RA can affect both the GI tract and the liver; changes are usually mild except with RV.
Authors:
Ellen C Ebert; Klaus D Hagspiel
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2011-01-04
Journal Detail:
Title:  Digestive diseases and sciences     Volume:  56     ISSN:  1573-2568     ISO Abbreviation:  Dig. Dis. Sci.     Publication Date:  2011 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-01-28     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7902782     Medline TA:  Dig Dis Sci     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  295-302     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Affiliation:
Department of Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ, USA, jeydels@yahoo.com.
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