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Game performance in ice sledge hockey: an exploratory examination into type of disability and anthropometric parameters.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22222590     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
OBJECTIVE: To compare first disability and anthropometric variables and second disability and game efficiency measures.
DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.
SETTING: Winter Paralympic Games in Vancouver (2010).
PARTICIPANTS: A sample of 54 (age, 30.85 ± 7.99 y) of the 114 elite ice sledge hockey athletes participated in this study. To be included in the analysis, an athlete had to participate for a minimum of 45 minutes in total and in a minimum of 2 games during the tournament.
ASSESSMENT OF RISK FACTORS: Athletes were categorized according to type of disability into 4 groups: group 1 (double amputee above and below the knee), group 2 (single amputee above and below the knee), group 3 (spinal cord injury), and group 4 (other physical disabilities, including phocomelia, cerebral palsy, sclerosis multiplex, and lower limb paresis, and players with minimal disability). Before the tournament, athletes completed a Personal Questionnaire Form. Data including anthropometric measurements (seated position and range of arms) and length of the sledge were also collected.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All 20 scheduled games were videotaped using 3 video cameras. The games were analyzed after the tournament by 5 observers. All observations were recorded using the Game Efficiency Sheet for Ice Sledge Hockey developed by the authors. Fourteen game parameters were included for analysis.
RESULTS: The instrument was developed specifically for this project's exploratory analysis. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability were established by statistical analysis (r > 0.93 and r > 0.95, respectively). Significant differences between disability groups were found for training frequency (F3,50 = 4.73, P = 0.006), height (F3,50 = 12.54, P = 0.001), and sledge length (F3,50 = 12.35, P = 0.001). The results of the Tukey honestly significant difference post hoc analyses revealed significant differences between groups 1 and 4 (P = 0.026), 2 and 4 (P = 0.007), and 3 and 4 (P = 0.013) for training frequency. There were also significant differences between groups 1 and 2 (P < 0.001), 1 and 4 (P < 0.001), and 2 and 4 (P = 0.021) for body height. In sledge length, significant differences were observed between groups 1 and 2 (P < 0.001), 1 and 3 (P < 0.001), 1 and 4 (P = 0.016), and 2 and 4 (P = 0.028). There was no strong evidence to support disability group differences in game efficiency measures.
CONCLUSIONS: The results may confirm the lack of a need for additional classification in sledge hockey beyond minimum eligibility or may enhance the argument that a classification system may be needed because the lower functioning disabilities are not being represented in the sport.
Bartosz Molik; Natalia Morgulec-Adamowicz; Andrzej Kosmol; Abu B Yilla; Alicja Filipkowska; Mateusz Lewandowski; Justyna Pijanowska; Katarzyna Słyk; Tomasz Zubala; Sylwester Flis; Roman Herink
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Clinical journal of sport medicine : official journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine     Volume:  22     ISSN:  1536-3724     ISO Abbreviation:  Clin J Sport Med     Publication Date:  2012 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-01-09     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9103300     Medline TA:  Clin J Sport Med     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  65-9     Citation Subset:  IM    
*Faculty of Rehabilitation, Józef Piłsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland †Department of Kinesiology, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas ‡Polish Ice Sledge Hockey National Team, Elbląg, Poland §Czech Republic Ice Sledge Hockey National Team, Karlovy Vary, Czech Republic.
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