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Gadolinium-153 as a brachytherapy isotope.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23339848     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
The purpose of this work was to present the fundamental dosimetric characteristics of a hypothetical (153)Gd brachytherapy source using the AAPM TG-43U1 dose-calculation formalism. Gadolinium-153 is an intermediate-energy isotope that emits 40-100 keV photons with a half-life of 242 days. The rationale for considering (153)Gd as a brachytherapy source is for its potential of patient specific shielding and to enable reduced personnel shielding requirements relative to (192)Ir, and as an isotope for interstitial rotating shield brachytherapy (I-RSBT). A hypothetical (153)Gd brachytherapy source with an active core of 0.84 mm diameter, 10 mm length and specific activity of 5.55 TBq of (153)Gd per gram of Gd was simulated with Geant4. The encapsulation material was stainless steel with a thickness of 0.08 mm. The radial dose function, anisotropy function and photon spectrum in water were calculated for the (153)Gd source. The simulated (153)Gd source had an activity of 242 GBq and a dose rate in water 1 cm off axis of 13.12 Gy h(-1), indicating that it would be suitable as a low-dose-rate or pulsed-dose-rate brachytherapy source. The beta particles emitted have low enough energies to be absorbed in the source encapsulation. Gadolinium-153 has an increasing radial dose function due to multiple scatter of low-energy photons. Scattered photon dose takes over with distance from the source and contributes to the majority of the absorbed dose. The anisotropy function of the (153)Gd source decreases at low polar angles, as a result of the long active core. The source is less anisotropic at polar angles away from the longitudinal axes. The anisotropy function increases with increasing distance. The (153)Gd source considered would be suitable as an intermediate-energy low-dose-rate or pulsed-dose-rate brachytherapy source. The source could provide a means for I-RSBT delivery and enable brachytherapy treatments with patient specific shielding and reduced personnel shielding requirements relative to (192)Ir.
Authors:
Shirin A Enger; Darrell R Fisher; Ryan T Flynn
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2013-1-23
Journal Detail:
Title:  Physics in medicine and biology     Volume:  58     ISSN:  1361-6560     ISO Abbreviation:  Phys Med Biol     Publication Date:  2013 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-1-23     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0401220     Medline TA:  Phys Med Biol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  957-964     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
Section of Oncology, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
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