Document Detail

Gadd45a and Gadd45g regulate neural development and exit from pluripotency in Xenopus.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21854844     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Gadd45 genes encode a small family of multifunctional stress response proteins, mediating cell proliferation, apoptosis, DNA repair and DNA demethylation. Their role during embryonic development is incompletely understood. Here we identified Xenopus Gadd45b, compared Gadd45a, Gadd45b and Gadd45g expression during Xenopus embryogenesis, and characterized their gain and loss of function phenotypes. Gadd45a and Gadd45g act redundantly and double Morpholino knock down leads to pleiotropic phenotypes, including shortened axes, head defects and misgastrulation. In contrast, Gadd45b, which is expressed at very low levels, shows little effect upon knock down or overexpression. Gadd45ag double Morphants show reduced neural cell proliferation and downregulation of pan-neural and neural crest markers. In contrast, Gadd45ag Morphants display increased expression of multipotency marker genes including Xenopus oct4 homologs as well as gastrula markers, while mesodermal markers are downregulated. The results indicate that Gadd45ag are required for early embryonic cells to exit pluripotency and enter differentiation.
Lilian T Kaufmann; Christof Niehrs
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2011-08-10
Journal Detail:
Title:  Mechanisms of development     Volume:  128     ISSN:  1872-6356     ISO Abbreviation:  Mech. Dev.     Publication Date:    2011 Sep-Dec
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-11-23     Completed Date:  2012-03-19     Revised Date:  2012-04-11    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9101218     Medline TA:  Mech Dev     Country:  Ireland    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  401-11     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Division of Molecular Embryology, DKFZ-ZMBH Alliance, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Im Neuenheimer Feld 581, Heidelberg, Germany.
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MeSH Terms
Amino Acid Sequence
Antigens, Differentiation / genetics*,  metabolism*
Cell Cycle Checkpoints / physiology
Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics,  metabolism*
Embryonic Development / physiology
Gene Knockdown Techniques
Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics,  metabolism*
Molecular Sequence Data
Neurogenesis / physiology*
Nuclear Proteins / genetics,  metabolism*
Xenopus Proteins / genetics,  metabolism*
Xenopus laevis / embryology*,  metabolism
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Antigens, Differentiation; 0/Cell Cycle Proteins; 0/GADD45 protein; 0/Gadd45a protein, Xenopus; 0/Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0/Nuclear Proteins; 0/Xenopus Proteins

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