Document Detail

Frontalis suspension for essential blepharospasm unresponsive to botulinum toxin therapy. First results.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  8312829     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
We performed frontalis suspension in 12 patients presenting with essential blepharospasm or "apraxia" of eyelid opening who did not respond sufficiently to botulinum toxin injections. An improvement could be observed in 9 patients. During the follow-up period (4-18 months) the effect of surgical intervention remained stable. As opposed to other surgical procedures (excision of the orbicularis muscle, resection of facial nerve branches), frontalis suspension can be considered as a minimally invasive and even reversible treatment.
P Roggenkämper; Z Nüssgens
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  German journal of ophthalmology     Volume:  2     ISSN:  0941-2921     ISO Abbreviation:  Ger J Ophthalmol     Publication Date:  1993 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1994-03-21     Completed Date:  1994-03-21     Revised Date:  2004-11-17    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9206441     Medline TA:  Ger J Ophthalmol     Country:  GERMANY    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  426-8     Citation Subset:  IM    
Universitäts-Augenklinik, Bonn, Germany.
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MeSH Terms
Aged, 80 and over
Apraxias / surgery
Blepharospasm / surgery*,  therapy
Botulinum Toxins / therapeutic use*
Eyelids / surgery*
Facial Muscles / surgery*
Follow-Up Studies
Middle Aged
Oculomotor Muscles
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Botulinum Toxins

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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