Document Detail

From schooling to shoaling: patterns of collective motion in zebrafish (Danio rerio).
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23166599     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Animal groups on the move can take different configurations. For example, groups of fish can either be 'shoals' or 'schools': shoals are simply aggregations of individuals; schools are shoals exhibiting polarized, synchronized motion. Here we demonstrate that polarization distributions of groups of zebrafish (Danio rerio) are bimodal, showing two distinct modes of collective motion corresponding to the definitions of shoaling and schooling. Other features of the group's motion also vary consistently between the two modes: zebrafish schools are faster and less dense than zebrafish shoals. Habituation to an environment can also alter the proportion of time zebrafish groups spend schooling or shoaling. Models of collective motion suggest that the degree and stability of group polarization increases with the group's density. Examining zebrafish groups of different sizes from 5 to 50, we show that larger groups are less polarized than smaller groups. Decreased fearfulness in larger groups may function similarly to habituation, causing them to spend more time shoaling than schooling, contrary to most models' predictions.
Noam Miller; Robert Gerlai
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2012-11-14
Journal Detail:
Title:  PloS one     Volume:  7     ISSN:  1932-6203     ISO Abbreviation:  PLoS ONE     Publication Date:  2012  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-11-20     Completed Date:  2013-05-06     Revised Date:  2013-07-11    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101285081     Medline TA:  PLoS One     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  e48865     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Behavior, Animal / physiology*
Likelihood Functions
Mass Behavior*
Models, Biological*
Motor Activity / physiology*
Population Density
Time Factors
Zebrafish / physiology*

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