Document Detail


From barnyard to food table: the omnipresence of hepatitis E virus and risk for zoonotic infection and food safety.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21316404     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important but extremely understudied pathogen. The mechanisms of HEV replication and pathogenesis are poorly understood, and a vaccine against HEV is not yet available. HEV is classified in the family Hepeviridae consisting of at least four recognized major genotypes. Genotypes 1 and 2 HEV are restricted to humans and associated with epidemics in developing countries, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 HEV are zoonotic and responsible for sporadic cases worldwide. The identification and characterization of a number of animal strains of HEV from pigs, chickens, rabbits, rats, mongoose, deer, and possibly cattle and sheep have significantly broadened the host range and diversity of HEV. The demonstrated ability of cross-species infection by some animal strains of HEV raises public health concerns for zoonotic HEV infection. Pigs are a recognized reservoir for HEV, and pig handlers are at increased risk of zoonotic HEV infection. Sporadic cases of hepatitis E have been definitively linked to the consumption of raw or undercooked animal meats such as pig livers, sausages, and deer meats. In addition, since large amounts of viruses excreted in feces, animal manure land application and runoffs can contaminate irrigation and drinking water with concomitant contamination of produce or shellfish. HEV RNA of swine origin has been detected in swine manure, sewage water and oysters, and consumption of contaminated shellfish has also been implicated in sporadic cases of hepatitis E. Therefore, the animal strains of HEV pose not only a zoonotic risk but also food and environmental safety concerns.
Authors:
Xiang-Jin Meng
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review     Date:  2011-02-21
Journal Detail:
Title:  Virus research     Volume:  161     ISSN:  1872-7492     ISO Abbreviation:  Virus Res.     Publication Date:  2011 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-09-23     Completed Date:  2012-01-04     Revised Date:  2013-06-30    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8410979     Medline TA:  Virus Res     Country:  Netherlands    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  23-30     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Affiliation:
Center for Molecular Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0913, USA. xjmeng@vt.edu
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Animals
Food / virology*
Food Safety*
Hepatitis E / transmission,  virology*
Hepatitis E virus / classification,  genetics,  physiology*
Humans
Zoonoses / transmission,  virology*
Grant Support
ID/Acronym/Agency:
AI050611/AI/NIAID NIH HHS; AI074667/AI/NIAID NIH HHS; R01 AI050611-03/AI/NIAID NIH HHS; R01 AI050611-04/AI/NIAID NIH HHS; R01 AI074667-03/AI/NIAID NIH HHS; R01 AI074667-04/AI/NIAID NIH HHS
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