Document Detail

Frequency of private spiritual activity and cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women: the Women's Health Initiative.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23621989     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
PURPOSE: Spirituality has been associated with better cardiac autonomic balance, but its association with cardiovascular risk is not well studied. We examined whether more frequent private spiritual activity was associated with reduced cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study.
METHODS: Frequency of private spiritual activity (prayer, Bible reading, and meditation) was self-reported at year 5 of follow-up. Cardiovascular outcomes were centrally adjudicated, and cardiovascular risk was estimated from proportional hazards models.
RESULTS: Final models included 43,708 women (mean age, 68.9 ± 7.3 years; median follow-up, 7.0 years) free of cardiac disease through year 5 of follow-up. In age-adjusted models, private spiritual activity was associated with increased cardiovascular risk (hazard ratio [HR], 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.31 for weekly vs. never; HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.11-1.40 for daily vs. never). In multivariate models adjusted for demographics, lifestyle, risk factors, and psychosocial factors, such association remained significant only in the group with daily activity (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03-1.30). Subgroup analyses indicate this association may be driven by the presence of severe chronic diseases.
CONCLUSIONS: Among aging women, higher frequency of private spiritual activity was associated with increased cardiovascular risk, likely reflecting a mobilization of spiritual resources to cope with aging and illness.
Elena Salmoirago-Blotcher; George Fitchett; Kathleen M Hovey; Eliezer Schnall; Cynthia Thomson; Christopher A Andrews; Sybil Crawford; Mary Jo O'Sullivan; Stephen Post; Rowan T Chlebowski; Judith Ockene
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Annals of epidemiology     Volume:  23     ISSN:  1873-2585     ISO Abbreviation:  Ann Epidemiol     Publication Date:  2013 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-04-29     Completed Date:  2013-09-25     Revised Date:  2014-05-07    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9100013     Medline TA:  Ann Epidemiol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  239-45     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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MeSH Terms
Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology,  prevention & control*
Confidence Intervals
Follow-Up Studies
Middle Aged
Postmenopause / psychology*
Proportional Hazards Models
Risk Assessment
Risk Factors
Self Report
Socioeconomic Factors
Women's Health*
Grant Support
HHSN268201100046C/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS; N01WH22110/WH/WHI NIH HHS; N01WH24152/WH/WHI NIH HHS; N01WH32100-2/WH/WHI NIH HHS; N01WH32105-6/WH/WHI NIH HHS; N01WH32108-9/WH/WHI NIH HHS; N01WH32111-13/WH/WHI NIH HHS; N01WH32115/WH/WHI NIH HHS; N01WH32118-32119/WH/WHI NIH HHS; N01WH32122/WH/WHI NIH HHS; N01WH42107-26/WH/WHI NIH HHS; N01WH42129-32/WH/WHI NIH HHS; N01WH4422/WH/WHI NIH HHS; UL1 TR000124/TR/NCATS NIH HHS

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