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Freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease: where are we now?
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23625316     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Freezing of gait (FOG) is defined as a brief, episodic absence or marked reduction of forward progression of the feet despite the intention to walk. It is one of the most debilitating motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) as it may lead to falls and a loss of independence. The pathophysiology of FOG seems to differ from the cardinal features of PD and is still largely unknown. In the present paper, we review the studies that were performed since 2011 on methods to provoke and assess FOG and discuss new insights into behavioral and neural mechanisms underlying this clinical phenomenon. We conclude that most of the work reviewed confirms that gait pattern generation disturbances are central to FOG. The finding that FOG reflects a combined motor and cognitive de-automatization deficit, which may not be sufficiently offset by executive control, probably acts as parallel mechanism.
Elke Heremans; Alice Nieuwboer; Sarah Vercruysse
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Current neurology and neuroscience reports     Volume:  13     ISSN:  1534-6293     ISO Abbreviation:  Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep     Publication Date:  2013 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-04-29     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  100931790     Medline TA:  Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  350     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium,
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