Document Detail

Free amino acids and sugars in rye grain: implications for acrylamide formation.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20055414     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Acrylamide forms from free asparagine and sugars during cooking, and products derived from the grain of cereals, including rye, contribute a large proportion of total dietary intake. In this study, free amino acid and sugar concentrations were measured in the grain of a range of rye varieties grown at locations in Hungary, France, Poland, and the United Kingdom and harvested in 2005, 2006, and 2007. Genetic and environmental (location and harvest year) effects on the levels of acrylamide precursors were assessed. The data showed free asparagine concentration to be the main determinant of acrylamide formation in heated rye flour, as it is in wheat. However, in contrast to wheat, sugar, particularly sucrose, concentration also correlated both with asparagine concentration and with acrylamide formed. Free asparagine concentration was shown to be under genetic (G), environmental (E), and integrated (G x E) control. The same was true for glucose, whereas maltose and fructose were affected mainly by environmental factors and sucrose was largely under genetic control. The ratio of variation due to varieties (genotype) to the total variation (a measure of heritability) for free asparagine concentration in the grain was 23%. Free asparagine concentration was closely associated with bran yield, whereas sugar concentration was associated with low Hagberg falling number. Rye grain was found to contain much higher concentrations of free proline than wheat grain, and less acrylamide formed per unit of asparagine in rye than in wheat flour.
Tanya Y Curtis; Stephen J Powers; Dimitrios Balagiannis; J Stephen Elmore; Donald S Mottram; Martin A J Parry; Mariann Rakszegi; Zoltan Bed?; Peter R Shewry; Nigel G Halford
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of agricultural and food chemistry     Volume:  58     ISSN:  1520-5118     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Agric. Food Chem.     Publication Date:  2010 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-02-03     Completed Date:  2010-04-19     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0374755     Medline TA:  J Agric Food Chem     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1959-69     Citation Subset:  IM    
Plant Science Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ, United Kingdom.
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MeSH Terms
Acrylamide / analysis*
Amino Acids / analysis
Asparagine / analysis*
Carbohydrates / analysis*
Secale cereale / chemistry*,  genetics
Grant Support
//Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Amino Acids; 0/Carbohydrates; 7006-34-0/Asparagine; 79-06-1/Acrylamide

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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