Document Detail

Fortification contributed greatly to vitamin and mineral intakes in the United States, 1989-1991.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  11481414     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The objective of this work was to quantify the contribution of fortification (defined here as adding nutrients beyond traditional enrichment standards) to dietary nutrient intakes in the United States. A list of fortified foods was developed that was relevant at the time of the analyses, and prefortification (naturally occurring) nutrients in the fortified foods were determined from industry-supplied data. Using dietary data from the 1989-1991 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), intakes of nine nutrients were determined both as reported in the CSFII (i.e., postfortification) and also by using prefortification nutrient levels for the identified fortified foods. We report data for the total population age >/= 1 y based on respondents (n = 11,710) with 3 d of dietary data, as well as select age/gender subgroups. All data were weighted. Fortification substantially increased the intakes of all nutrients examined except calcium, in all age/gender groups but especially in children. In numerous cases, fortification was responsible for boosting median or 25th percentile intakes from below to above the RDA. The breakfast cereal category was responsible for nearly all the intake of nutrients from fortified foods, except vitamin C for which juice-type beverages made as great or a greater contribution. These data from 1989 to 1991 serve as a useful baseline with which to compare contributions of fortification as the practice expands. The large contribution of fortification even in 1989-1991 suggests that continued monitoring of fortification practices, using methods such as those presented here, is important.
L A Berner; F M Clydesdale; J S Douglass
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Journal of nutrition     Volume:  131     ISSN:  0022-3166     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Nutr.     Publication Date:  2001 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2001-08-01     Completed Date:  2001-09-06     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0404243     Medline TA:  J Nutr     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  2177-83     Citation Subset:  IM    
Food Science and Nutrition Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Child, Preschool
Diet Records
Diet Surveys
Food, Fortified*
Mental Recall
Middle Aged
Minerals / administration & dosage*
United States
Vitamins / administration & dosage*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Minerals; 0/Vitamins

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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