Document Detail

Formation of pyrazines and a novel pyrrole in Maillard model systems of 1,3-dihydroxyacetone and 2-oxopropanal.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  18318495     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Alkylpyrazines are a very important class of Maillard flavor compounds, but their mechanism of formation is complex and consists of different pathways. The model reaction of 20 different amino acids with 1,3-dihydroxyacetone, as a precursor of 2-oxopropanal, was studied by means of SPME-GC-MS to investigate the involvement of the amino acid side chain in the substitution pattern of the resulting pyrazines. 2,5-Dimethylpyrazine was quantitatively the most important pyrazine formed from all of the amino acids. The amino acid side chain is not involved in its formation. The substituents of other less abundant pyrazines resulted mainly from the incorporation of the Strecker aldehyde or aldol condensation products in the intermediate dihydropyrazine. The importance of different reaction mechanisms was evaluated, taking into account the pattern of pyrazines identified. In the solvent extracts of aqueous model reactions of 2-oxopropanal with amino acids, the main reaction product was not a pyrazine but a novel pyrrole. This pyrrole was identified as 2,5-diacetyl-3-methyl-1 H-pyrrole by means of spectral analysis, secured by chemical synthesis. A reaction mechanism for its formation was proposed and evaluated. The influence of various reaction conditions on the formation of 2,5-diacetyl-3-methyl-1 H-pyrrole and 2,5-dimethylpyrazine in the model reaction of alanine with 2-oxopropanal was studied. These results underscore the importance of the ratio of the different reagents and the presence of water in the resulting flavor formation in the Maillard reaction.
An Adams; Viviana Polizzi; Martinus van Boekel; Norbert De Kimpe
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2008-03-05
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of agricultural and food chemistry     Volume:  56     ISSN:  0021-8561     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Agric. Food Chem.     Publication Date:  2008 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2008-03-19     Completed Date:  2008-06-11     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0374755     Medline TA:  J Agric Food Chem     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  2147-53     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
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MeSH Terms
Dihydroxyacetone / chemistry*
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Maillard Reaction*
Pyrazines / chemical synthesis*
Pyrroles / chemical synthesis*
Pyruvaldehyde / chemistry*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/2,5-diacetyl-3-methyl-1H-pyrrole; 0/Pyrazines; 0/Pyrroles; 78-98-8/Pyruvaldehyde; 96-26-4/Dihydroxyacetone

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