Document Detail


Formation of mutagens following chlorination of humic acid. A model for mutagen formation during drinking water treatment.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  6223225     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Aqueous chlorination of humic acids results in the formation of compounds with direct-acting mutagenic activity in the Ames/Salmonella plate assay for tester strains TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537 and TA1538. The addition of a rat-liver microsomal fraction (S9) plus cofactors causes a substantial decrease of activity, the extent of which is tester strain dependent. The non-chlorinated humic acids are not mutagenic either in the presence or absence of S9. Formation of mutagenic activity and of total organic halogen (TOX) is linearly related to humic concentration in the range of 0.2-1.6 mg/ml total organic carbon (TOC), and to chlorine concentration in the range of 0.1-1.0 chlorine equivalents per mole of carbon. The mutagenic activity is due predominantly to non-volatile compounds. Mutagenic activity is also detectable, after sample concentration by lyophilization, upon chlorination at a humic acid level of 0.02 mg/ml TOC. The specific mutagenic activities (per mg TOX), and also the degree of chlorine incorporation into humic acid, at 0.02 mg/ml TOC are similar to those present after chlorination at 1 mg/ml TOC. Production of mutagens is greatly dependent on the chlorination pH, with a pattern of decreasing mutagenic activity with increasing pH. This order of activity can be at least partially explained by the alkali liability of the compounds. Chlorination of commercial humic acids is proposed as a model for examination of mutagen formation during water chlorination.
Authors:
J R Meier; R D Lingg; R J Bull
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Mutation research     Volume:  118     ISSN:  0027-5107     ISO Abbreviation:  Mutat. Res.     Publication Date:  1983 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1983-08-26     Completed Date:  1983-08-26     Revised Date:  2008-11-21    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0400763     Medline TA:  Mutat Res     Country:  NETHERLANDS    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  25-41     Citation Subset:  IM    
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Animals
Chemical Phenomena
Chemistry
Chlorine*
Humic Substances*
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Male
Microsomes, Liver
Mutagenicity Tests
Mutagens / chemical synthesis*
Rats
Salmonella typhimurium
Water*
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Humic Substances; 0/Mutagens; 7732-18-5/Water; 7782-50-5/Chlorine

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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