Document Detail

Food-induced arousal and nonassociative learning in honeybees: dependence of sensitization on the application site and duration of food stimulation.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  7857243     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Stimulus-induced arousal (sensitization) of a component of appetitive behavior in honeybees, the proboscis extension reflex (PER), was used to investigate different aspects of nonassociative memory. The sensitizing stimulus (sucrose solution) was applied to one antenna, as a compound to antenna and proboscis, and to the proboscis. Stimulus duration was either 1 or 3 s. Sensitization was evaluated by monitoring PER toward an odor before (pretest) and after (test) application of the sensitizing stimulus. All responses were quantified by recording from muscle M17 which represents the motor program of PER. Data were analyzed by determining (1) the response probability to the odor and (2) the response strength by determining the number of M17-spikes and the percentage of licking bees per trial. The analysis of the response probability led to two main results: the proportion of animals responding to the test odor depended on stimulus site, and, dependent on stimulus site, a longer application of the sensitizing stimulus resulted in different sensitization rates. The strength of the sensitized response, however, did not correspond to the probability, with which it was elicited, but rather to the strength of the response to the sensitizing stimulus itself. Furthermore, the three groups were not equally affected by the short and long stimulation. The analysis of the proportion of animals licking during test confirmed the data obtained using the number of muscle spikes as a measure of response strength. These results suggest an internal evaluation of the sensitizing stimulus depending on its quality and intensity. The differential effects after antennal and proboscis stimulation may be realized via an arousal system which has two independent functions, a permissive one modulating response probability and one modulating response strength. The permissive function of arousal may be regulated via an intervening inhibitory system whose activation critically depends on the functional significance of the arousing stimulus. The content of this short-term form of memory may be interpreted as an expectation for food which is regulated according to experienced consequences.
M Hammer; G Braun; J Mauelshagen
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Behavioral and neural biology     Volume:  62     ISSN:  0163-1047     ISO Abbreviation:  Behav. Neural Biol.     Publication Date:  1994 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1995-03-13     Completed Date:  1995-03-13     Revised Date:  2008-11-21    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7905471     Medline TA:  Behav Neural Biol     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  210-23     Citation Subset:  IM    
Institut für Neurobiologie, FU-Berlin, FRG.
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MeSH Terms
Appetitive Behavior / physiology*
Arousal / physiology*
Association Learning / physiology*
Bees / physiology*
Chemoreceptor Cells / physiology
Evoked Potentials / physiology
Feeding Behavior / physiology
Motor Neurons / physiology
Muscles / innervation
Reflex / physiology*
Smell / physiology
Reg. No./Substance:

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