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Food fortification improves the intake of all fortified nutrients, but fails to meet the estimated dietary requirements for vitamins A and B6, riboflavin and zinc, in lactating South African women.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22874138     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of fortification by comparing food records and selected biochemical indicators of nutritional status pre- and post-fortification. DESIGN: Mean intake from 24 h recalls (n 142) was compared with the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) to determine the proportion with inadequate intake. In a subsample (n 34), diet and serum retinol, folate, ferritin and Zn were compared pre- and post-fortification for fortified nutrients vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, Fe and Zn. SETTING: South Africa. SUBJECTS: Breast-feeding women (ninety-four HIV-infected, forty eight HIV-uninfected) measured at ∼6, 14, 24 weeks, and 9 and 12 months postpartum. RESULTS: Pre-fortification, >80 % of women did not meet the EAR for vitamins A, C, D, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, B6, B12 and folate and minerals Zn, iodine and Ca. Dietary intake post-fortification increased for all fortified nutrients. In post-fortification food records, >70 % did not meet the EAR for Zn and vitamins A, riboflavin and B6. Serum folate and Zn increased significantly post-fortification (P < 0·001 for both), with no change in ferritin and a reduction in retinol. Post-fortification marginal/deficient folate status was reduced (73·5 % pre v. 3·0 % post; P < 0·001), as was Zn deficiency (26·5 % pre v. 5·9 % post; P < 0·05). Pre- and post-fortification, >93 % were retinol replete. There was no change in Fe deficiency (16·7 % pre v. 19·4 % post; P = 0·728). CONCLUSIONS: Micronutrient intake improved with fortification, but >70 % of lactating women did not meet the EAR for Zn, vitamins A, riboflavin and B6. Although 100 % exceeded the EAR for Fe after fortification, Fe status did not improve.
Authors:
Peggy C Papathakis; Kerry E Pearson
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-7-5
Journal Detail:
Title:  Public health nutrition     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1475-2727     ISO Abbreviation:  Public Health Nutr     Publication Date:  2012 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-8-9     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9808463     Medline TA:  Public Health Nutr     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  1-8     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407, USA.
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