Document Detail

Food-based strategies improve iron status in toddlers: a randomized controlled trial12.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19828711     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: Nonanemic iron deficiency is common in toddlers in developed countries. Food-based strategies are safe methods to control and prevent mild micronutrient deficiencies. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the efficacy of an increased intake of red meat, or the consumption of iron-fortified milk, in improvement of iron status in toddlers at a population level. DESIGN: In this 20-wk randomized placebo-controlled trial, 225 healthy nonanemic 12-20-mo-old children were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: red meat (toddlers encouraged to consume approximately 2.6 mg iron from red meat dishes daily), fortified milk [toddlers' regular milk replaced with iron-fortified (1.5 mg iron/100 g prepared milk) cow milk], or control [toddlers' regular milk replaced with nonfortified (0.01 mg iron/100 g prepared milk) cow milk]. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 20 wk for hemoglobin, serum ferritin, serum transferrin receptor, and C-reactive protein. The prevalence of suboptimal iron status (ie, depleted iron stores, iron-deficient erythropoiesis, and iron deficiency anemia) was determined, and body iron was calculated. RESULTS: No intervention effects were shown on the prevalence of suboptimal iron status. Serum ferritin increased by 44% (95% CI: 14%, 82%; P = 0.002) in the fortified milk group, did not change (+10%) in the red meat group (95% CI: -7%, 30%; P = 0.241), and tended to decrease (-14%) in the control group (95% CI: -27%, 1%; P = 0.063). By 20 wk, in comparison with the control group, serum ferritin and body iron were significantly higher in the fortified milk group (both P < 0.001), and serum ferritin was significantly higher in the red meat group (P = 0.033). CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of iron-fortified milk can increase iron stores in healthy nonanemic toddlers, whereas increased intakes of red meat can prevent their decline. This trial was registered at as ACTRN12605000487617.
Ewa A Szymlek-Gay; Elaine L Ferguson; Anne-Louise M Heath; Andrew R Gray; Rosalind S Gibson
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2009-10-14
Journal Detail:
Title:  The American journal of clinical nutrition     Volume:  90     ISSN:  1938-3207     ISO Abbreviation:  Am. J. Clin. Nutr.     Publication Date:  2009 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2009-11-25     Completed Date:  2009-12-08     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0376027     Medline TA:  Am J Clin Nutr     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1541-51     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Departments of Human Nutrition and Preventive and Social Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
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MeSH Terms
Double-Blind Method
Ferritins / blood
Food, Fortified*
Infant Food
Iron / deficiency,  metabolism*
Reg. No./Substance:
7439-89-6/Iron; 9007-73-2/Ferritins

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