Document Detail


Focal electrical stimulation as an effective sham control for active rTMS and biofeedback treatments.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23702828     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
A valid sham control is important for determining the efficacy and effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as an experimental and clinical tool. Given the manner in which rTMS is applied, separately or in combination with self-regulatory approaches, and its intended impact on brain states, a valid sham control of this type may well serve as a meaningful control for biofeedback studies, where efforts to develop a credible control have often been less than ideal. This study examined the effectiveness of focal electrical stimulation of the frontalis muscle as a sham technique for blinding participants to high-frequency rTMS over the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) at durations, intensities, and schedules of stimulation similar to many clinical applications. In this within-subjects single blind design, 19 participants made guesses immediately after receiving 54 counterbalanced rTMS sessions (sham, 10 Hz, 20 Hz); 7 (13 %) of the guesses were made for sham, 31 (57 %) were made for 10 Hz, and 16 (30 %) were made for 20 Hz. Participants correctly guessed the sham condition 6 % (CI 1, 32 %) of the time, which is less than the odds of chance (i.e., of guessing at random, 33 %); correctly guessed the 10 Hz condition 66 % (CI 43, 84 %) of the time, which was greater than chance; and correctly guessed the 20 Hz condition 41 % (CI 21, 65 %) of the time, which was no different than chance. Focal electrical stimulation therefore can be an effective sham control for high-frequency rTMS of the DLPFC, as well as for active biofeedback interventions. Participants were unaware that electrical stimulation was, in fact, sham rTMS.
Authors:
Christine E Sheffer; Mark S Mennemeier; Reid D Landes; John Dornhoffer; Timothy Kimbrell; Warren K Bickel; Sharon Brackman; Kenneth C Chelette; Ginger Brown; Mai Vuong
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Applied psychophysiology and biofeedback     Volume:  38     ISSN:  1573-3270     ISO Abbreviation:  Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback     Publication Date:  2013 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-08-09     Completed Date:  2014-03-06     Revised Date:  2014-09-02    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9712383     Medline TA:  Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  171-6     Citation Subset:  IM    
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Adult
Biofeedback, Psychology / methods*
Control Groups
Data Interpretation, Statistical
Electric Stimulation*
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Prefrontal Cortex / physiology
Research Design
Single-Blind Method
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation / methods*
Young Adult
Grant Support
ID/Acronym/Agency:
HD055269/HD/NICHD NIH HHS; HD055677/HD/NICHD NIH HHS; L30 DA023847/DA/NIDA NIH HHS; P20 RR020146/RR/NCRR NIH HHS; P20 RR020146/RR/NCRR NIH HHS; UL1RR029884/RR/NCRR NIH HHS
Comments/Corrections

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