Document Detail


Fluoride levels in various black tea commodities: measurement and safety evaluation.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  16510229     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
In order to determine the fluoride content of various products of black tea and to make safety evaluations, 37 commodities in the different manufactured forms of tea were assessed by means of ion-selective electrode and spectrophotometric methods. The results showed wide differences in fluoride levels. The fluoride content was found 0.95-1.41 mg/L in black tea sticks, 0.70-2.44 mg/L in black tea granules and 1.15-6.01 mg/L in black tea bags. Of the products tested, the fluoride content was greatest in black tea bags, presumably because black tea bags are made of low cost, and older tea leaves. According to WHO's recommendation, fluoride exposure threshold for children is 2mg of daily intake and for adult, 4 mg. Assuming that children's daily intake of black tea was 800 ml and adult's 1500 ml, 56% of black tea bags should be considered unsafe for children and 44% should be considered unsafe for adults. At average rates of consumption, 24% of the black tea bags could result in an increasing risk of osteofluorosis and fractures (WHO). In the areas with drinking water fluoridation or other fluoride supplements, excessive fluoride exposure can become even more severe with even lower intake tea made from black tea bags. The potential hazards of fluoride arising from consumption of black tea has not aroused due public attention. Therefore, it is necessary to establish reliable fluoride surveillance in food and beverage commodities and conduct additional epidemiological research on fluoride hazards. In addition, it is urgent that governmental and international agencies adopt safe standards of fluoride content in tea commodities.
Authors:
Jin Cao; Yan Zhao; Yi Li; Hui Jun Deng; Juan Yi; Jian Wei Liu
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2006-02-28
Journal Detail:
Title:  Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association     Volume:  44     ISSN:  0278-6915     ISO Abbreviation:  Food Chem. Toxicol.     Publication Date:  2006 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2006-06-13     Completed Date:  2006-08-14     Revised Date:  2007-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8207483     Medline TA:  Food Chem Toxicol     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1131-7     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Tea and Health Laboratory, Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha 410078, Hunan, PR China. tea@xysm.net
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Electrochemistry
Electrodes
Fluorides / adverse effects,  analysis*
Quality Control
Reference Standards
Tea / chemistry*
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Fluorides; 0/Tea

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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