Document Detail

Flavor improvement does not increase abuse liability of nicotine chewing gum.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  12175452     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Because the taste of nicotine gum has impeded compliance with dosing recommendations, nicotine gum with improved taste (mint, orange) was developed and marketed. Prior to marketing, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) required a rigorous abuse liability assessment to examine whether enhanced palatability of nicotine gum would increase its abuse liability. Subjective, physiological, and psychomotor effects of mint flavor and original nicotine gum were tested in adult smokers (22-55 years old); a group of younger subjects (18-21 years old) was also included to allow for assessment of abuse liability in young adults specifically. Amphetamine and confectionery gum served as positive controls for abuse liability and palatability. Subjects rated palatability of mint gum higher than original nicotine gum, but substantially lower than confectionery gum. Palatability decreased with increasing dose of nicotine. Neither original nor mint gum increased ratings of traditional abuse liability predictors [Good Effect, Like Effect, Morphine-Benzedrine Group (MBG) scales of Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI)], while amphetamine increased ratings of all these measures. Both flavors of nicotine gum decreased craving during 2 h of abstinence. These effects were more pronounced in the adult group and mint gum was more effective than original gum. Younger subjects reported fewer withdrawal symptoms and lower ratings for drug effects and flavor. Improved flavor of nicotine gum does not increase abuse liability, but may be associated with enhanced craving reduction.
Elisabeth J Houtsmuller; Reginald V Fant; Thomas E Eissenberg; Jack E Henningfield; Maxine L Stitzer
Publication Detail:
Type:  Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior     Volume:  72     ISSN:  0091-3057     ISO Abbreviation:  Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav.     Publication Date:  2002 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2002-08-14     Completed Date:  2003-02-05     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0367050     Medline TA:  Pharmacol Biochem Behav     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  559-68     Citation Subset:  IM    
Behavioral Pharmacology Research Unit, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Bayview Medical Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21224-6823, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Age Factors
Analysis of Variance
Behavior, Addictive* / drug therapy,  psychology
Chewing Gum*
Cross-Over Studies
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Double-Blind Method
Middle Aged
Nicotine / pharmacology*,  therapeutic use
Smoking / drug therapy,  psychology
Substance-Related Disorders / psychology
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Chewing Gum; 54-11-5/Nicotine

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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