Document Detail

First trimester umbilical cord and vitelline duct measurements using virtual reality.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21131146     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
BACKGROUND: The umbilical cord and vitelline duct are of vital importance to the fetus, but they are rarely the subject of first trimester two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound evaluation due to the complexity of their shape and morphology. Virtual reality (VR) allows efficient visualisation and measurement of complex structures like the umbilical cord and vitelline duct.
AIM: To measure normal first trimester human growth of the umbilical cord length (UCL) and vitelline duct length (VDL) using a VR system; and to correlate both measurements with the gestational age (GA) and crown-rump length (CRL) and the VDL with the yolk sac volume (YSV).
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. Serial three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound measurements were performed from six to 14weeks GA, resulting in 125 3D volumes. These volumes were analysed using an I-Space VR system.
SUBJECTS: Thirty-two healthy pregnant women with an ongoing, normal pregnancy.
OUTCOME MEASURES: The UCL, VDL, YSV and other related structures were measured.
RESULTS: The UCL, measurable in 55% of cases, was positively correlated to advancing GA and CRL (p<0.001). The VDL could be measured in 42% of cases and showed a positive relationship with GA and CRL (p<0.001). There was a significant (p<0.001) relationship between YSV and VDL.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study, facilitated by a VR system, is the first to provide an in-vivo longitudinal description of normal first trimester growth of the human umbilical cord and vitelline duct. Further studies will reveal whether these parameters can be used in detection of abnormal fetal development.
Melek Rousian; Christine M Verwoerd-Dikkeboom; Anton H J Koning; Wim C Hop; Peter J van der Spek; Eric A P Steegers; Niek Exalto
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2010-12-04
Journal Detail:
Title:  Early human development     Volume:  87     ISSN:  1872-6232     ISO Abbreviation:  Early Hum. Dev.     Publication Date:  2011 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-01-24     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7708381     Medline TA:  Early Hum Dev     Country:  Ireland    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  77-82     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Division of Obstetrics and Prenatal Medicine, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
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