Document Detail

First aid kit for hypoxic survival: sensors and strategies.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20578845     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Survival success under conditions of acute oxygen deprivation depends on efficiency of the central and peripheral chemoreception, optimization of oxygen extraction from the hypoxic environment and its delivery to the periphery, and adjustments of energy production and consumption. This article uses a comparative approach to assess the efficiency of adaptive strategies used by anoxia-tolerant and hypoxia-sensitive species to support survival during the first minutes to 1 h of oxygen deprivation. An aquatic environment is much more demanding in terms of diurnal and seasonal variations of the ambient oxygen availability from anoxia to hyperoxia than is an air environment. Therefore, fishes and aquatic turtles have developed a number of adaptive responses, which are lacking in most of the terrestrial mammals, to cope with these extreme conditions. These include efficient central and peripheral chemoreception, acute changes in respiratory rate and amplitude, and acute increase of the gas-exchange interface. A special set of adaptive mechanisms are engaged in reduction of the energy expenditure of the major oxygen-consuming organs: the brain and the heart. Both reduction of ATP consumption and a switch to alterative energy sources contribute to the maintenance of ATP and ion balance in hypoxia-tolerant animals. Hypoxia and hyperoxia are conditions favoring development of oxidative stress. Efficient protection from oxidation in anoxia-tolerant species includes reduction in the glutamate levels in the brain, stabilization of the mitochondrial function, and maintenance of nitric oxide production under conditions of oxygen deprivation. We give an overview of the current state of knowledge on some selected molecular and cellular acute adaptive mechanisms. These include the mechanisms of chemoreception in adult and neonatal mammals and in fishes, acute metabolic adaptive responses in the brain, and the role of nitrite in the preservation of heart function under hypoxic conditions.
J López-Barneo; C A Nurse; G E Nilsson; L T Buck; M Gassmann; A Yu Bogdanova
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Physiological and biochemical zoology : PBZ     Volume:  83     ISSN:  1537-5293     ISO Abbreviation:  Physiol. Biochem. Zool.     Publication Date:    2010 Sep-Oct
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-08-20     Completed Date:  2010-12-20     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  100883369     Medline TA:  Physiol Biochem Zool     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  753-63     Citation Subset:  IM    
Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain.
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MeSH Terms
Adaptation, Physiological / physiology*
Adenosine Triphosphate / metabolism
Anoxia / physiopathology*
Brain / metabolism*
Carotid Body / physiology
Chromaffin Cells / physiology
Energy Metabolism / physiology
Glutamic Acid / metabolism
Mitochondria / physiology*
Myocardium / metabolism*
Nitric Oxide / metabolism
Nitrites / metabolism
Oxidative Stress / physiology*
Oxygen / metabolism*
Species Specificity
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Nitrites; 10102-43-9/Nitric Oxide; 56-65-5/Adenosine Triphosphate; 56-86-0/Glutamic Acid; 7782-44-7/Oxygen

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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