Document Detail

Fifty years of progress in carotid body physiology--invited article.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19536461     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Research on arterial chemoreceptors, particularly on the carotid body, has been fruitful in the last fifty years, to which this review is addressed. The functional anatomy of the organ appears to be well established. The biophysical bases by which glomus cells transduce chemical changes in the milieu intérieur (hypoxia, hypercapnia, acidosis) into electrical and biochemical changes in glomus cells have received much attention. Physical changes (in temperature, flow and osmolarity) are also detected by the carotid body. Electrical coupling between glomus cells themselves appears as very extensive. Sustentacular cells classically considered as ensheathing glia for glomus cells and nerve endings now appear to behave as stem cells precursors for glomus cells under chronic hypoxic conditions. Many papers have been devoted to transmitters released from glomus cells (acetylcholine, dopamine, ATP) and well as to their effects upon chemosensory nerve activity. Chemosensory neurons have been explored from generation of action potentials at peripheral nerve endings, passing to properties of perikarya at petrosal ganglia and finally at characterization of synaptic transmission at solitary tract nuclei. There is abundant literature on ventilatory and cardiovascular reflexes elicited from arterial chemoreceptors. The transient effects of sudden and brief withdrawal of chemosensory discharges by hyperoxia also provide clues on the role played by carotid bodies in the homeostasis of full organisms.
R S Fitzgerald; C Eyzaguirre; P Zapata
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Advances in experimental medicine and biology     Volume:  648     ISSN:  0065-2598     ISO Abbreviation:  Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.     Publication Date:  2009  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2009-06-18     Completed Date:  2009-07-29     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0121103     Medline TA:  Adv Exp Med Biol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  19-28     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Division of Physiology, Av. Las Condes 12438, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Carotid Body / drug effects,  physiology*
Reflex / drug effects,  physiology
Stimulation, Chemical

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