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Fifty Fertile Years: Anthropologists' Studies of Reproduction in High Altitude Natives.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23382088     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Early European colonists of the Andes had difficulties in reproducing, a fact that underpins the hypothesis that reproduction is impaired amongst all humans at high altitudes. Yet a 16th century missionary wrote, "… the Indians are healthiest and where they multiply the most prolifically is in these same cold air-tempers, … [yet most children of the Spaniards] when born in such regions do not survive." These observations suggest that humans at high altitudes are subjected to strong natural selection from hypoxia, cold and limited food sources and, furthermore, that human populations can and have adapted, and continue to adapt, to these conditions. Informed by multiple approaches and theoretical frameworks, anthropologists have investigated to what extent and precisely how high altitude environments impact human reproductive functioning and fertility. Analyses of the proximate determinants of natural fertility suggest that behaviors (breast/infant feeding practices in the Andes, and marriage practices and religious celibacy in the Himalaya) are major determinants of fertility in high altitude populations. Furthermore, data from Project REPA (Reproduction and Ecology in Provincía Aroma), a longitudinal study in rural Bolivia, demonstrate that fecundity is not impaired in this indigenous altiplano population, and that the risk for early pregnancy loss (EPL) is not elevated by environmental hypoxia but does vary seasonally with the agricultural cycle (contra to the assumption that EPLs are due almost entirely to genetically flawed concepti). This review discusses these and other findings that reveal the complex and dynamic adaptations of human reproductive functioning in high altitude environments. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Authors:
Virginia J Vitzthum
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2013-2-5
Journal Detail:
Title:  American journal of human biology : the official journal of the Human Biology Council     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1520-6300     ISO Abbreviation:  Am. J. Hum. Biol.     Publication Date:  2013 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-2-5     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8915029     Medline TA:  Am J Hum Biol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Affiliation:
Anthropology Department and The Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, 47405.
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