Document Detail

Field trial of a low cost method to evaluate hand cleanliness.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  17550474     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a simple low cost method for measuring hand contamination as an objective assessment of handwashing practices. METHOD: As part of a larger randomized controlled trial of handwashing promotion with soap conducted in squatter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan, a randomly selected subset of 52 mothers in households receiving soap and handwashing promotion and 28 mothers in control households directly pressed three fingers of their right hand onto MacConkey agar plates on weekly unannounced visits from April to September 2002, and monthly from October 2002 to March 2003. The MacConkey plates were incubated at 44 degrees C for 24 h, and evaluated for growth of thermotolerant coliform bacteria. RESULTS: The proportion of samples that had detectable thermotolerant coliforms (50%) was similar in households that received soap and control households (52%, P = 0.40). In the week after evaluation of the mothers' hands, the proportion of households that reported diarrhoea was similar regardless of whether or not the mother had thermotolerant coliforms detected by direct finger imprint (18.6%vs. 19.1%, Relative Risk 0.99, 95% CI 0.96, 1.03). CONCLUSIONS: A three finger direct imprint test using MacConkey agar for thermotolerant coliforms was not a useful method to assess regular handwashing practices with soap in Karachi. Developing better measures of handwashing behaviour remains an important research priority.
Stephen P Luby; Mubina Agboatwalla; Ward Billhimer; Robert M Hoekstra
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH     Volume:  12     ISSN:  1360-2276     ISO Abbreviation:  Trop. Med. Int. Health     Publication Date:  2007 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2007-06-06     Completed Date:  2007-07-09     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9610576     Medline TA:  Trop Med Int Health     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  765-71     Citation Subset:  IM    
Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Centers for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Costs and Cost Analysis
Diarrhea / epidemiology
Enterobacteriaceae / isolation & purification
Hand / microbiology
Handwashing / standards*
Health Promotion / economics,  methods*
Pakistan / epidemiology
Transients and Migrants
Reg. No./Substance:

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