Document Detail

Field tests on human tolerance to (LNG) fire radiant heat exposure, and attenuation effects of clothing and other objects.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  18291577     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
A series of field tests exposing mannequins clothed with civilian clothing to a 3m x 3m square liquefied natural gas (LNG) pool fire was conducted. Both single layer clothing and double layer clothing were used. The radiant heat flux incident outside the clothing and incident on the skin covered by clothing were measured using wide-angle radiometers, for durations of 100-200 s (per test). The levels of heat flux incident on the clothing were close to 5 kW/m(2). The magnitude of the radiant heat attenuation factor (AF) across the thickness was determined. AF varies between 2 and higher for cotton and polyester clothing (thickness 0.286-1.347 mm); AF value of 6 was measured for 1.347 mm thickness. Single sheet newspaper held about 5 cm in front of mannequins and exposed to incident flux of 5 kW/m(2) resulted in AF of 5, and AF of 8 with double sheets. AF decreases linearly with increasing heat flux values and linearly increases with thickness. The author exposed himself, in normal civilian clothing (of full sleeve cotton/polyester shirt and jean pants), to radiant heat from a LNG fire. The exposure was for several tens of seconds to heat flux levels ranging from 3.5 kW/m(2) to 5(+) kW/m(2) (exposure times from 25s to 97 s at average heat flux values in the 4 kW/m(2) and 5 kW/m(2)range). Occasionally, he was exposed to (as high as) 7 kW/m(2) for durations of several seconds. He did not suffer any unbearable or even severe pain nor did he experience blisters or burns or any other injury on the unprotected skin of his body. The incident heat fluxes on the author were measured by a hand-held radiometer (with digital display) as well as by strapped on wide-angle radiometers connected to a computer. He could withstand the US regulatory criterion of 5 kW/m(2) (for 30 s) without suffering any damage or burns. Temperature measured on author's skin covered by clothing did not rise above the normal body temperature even after 200 s of exposure to 4 kW/m(2) average heat flux.
Phani K Raj
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.     Date:  2008-01-15
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of hazardous materials     Volume:  157     ISSN:  0304-3894     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Hazard. Mater.     Publication Date:  2008 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2008-07-14     Completed Date:  2009-01-07     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9422688     Medline TA:  J Hazard Mater     Country:  Netherlands    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  247-59     Citation Subset:  IM    
Technology & Management Systems Inc, Burlington, MA 01803, USA. <>
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MeSH Terms
Fossil Fuels
Materials Testing
Protective Clothing / standards*
Radiometry / instrumentation*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Fossil Fuels

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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