Document Detail

Fetal homologue of infant crying.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  15857876     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Four behavioural states are recognised in the human fetus and are comparable to those of the neonate: 1F (quiet sleep), 2F (active state), 3F (quiet awake), and 4F (active awake). State 5, or crying, is not considered to have a fetal correlate. In a study assessing the effects of exposure to tobacco and cocaine during pregnancy on fetal response and habituation to vibroacoustic stimulation, what appears to be the fetal homologue of crying was observed. These behaviours were seen on ultrasound, and have been captured on video recordings and include: an initial exhalation movement associated with mouth opening and tongue depression, followed by a series of three augmented breaths, the last breath ending in an inspiratory pause followed by an expiration and settling. This is the first report/video documenting these behaviours and suggests the possibility of a state 5F.
J L Gingras; E A Mitchell; K E Grattan
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.     Date:  2005-04-27
Journal Detail:
Title:  Archives of disease in childhood. Fetal and neonatal edition     Volume:  90     ISSN:  1359-2998     ISO Abbreviation:  Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed.     Publication Date:  2005 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2005-08-22     Completed Date:  2005-10-06     Revised Date:  2009-11-18    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9501297     Medline TA:  Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  F415-8     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
The SIDS CARE Center, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Acoustic Stimulation / methods
Cocaine-Related Disorders
Fetal Movement*
Heart Rate, Fetal
Infant Behavior
Infant, Newborn
Maternal-Fetal Exchange
Mouth / embryology
Pregnancy Complications
Ultrasonography, Prenatal / methods
Video Recording
Grant Support

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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