Document Detail

Feedback control of the auditory periphery: anti-masking effects of middle ear muscles vs. olivocochlear efferents.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  9836136     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Both MEM and MOC systems are sound-evoked reflexes to the auditory periphery which can be elicited by sound in either ear. Both MEM and MOC systems can increase thresholds in the auditory periphery: the MEM system acts by stiffening the ossicular chain, the MOC system by decreasing outer hair cell amplification of sound-induced motion in the inner ear. MEM-induced attenuations are largest for low frequency stimuli, MOC-induced attenuations are largest for mid- to high-frequency sounds. Both MEM and MOC systems can have anti-masking effects. The MEM reflex can decrease the masking of high-frequency signals by low-frequency noise (i.e., the upward spread of masking). The MOC reflex is complementary in that it minimizes masking of high-frequency transient signals by high-frequency continuous noise. MEM anti-masking arises by reducing suppressive masking and can improve masked thresholds at high frequencies. MOC anti-masking arises by counteracting excitatory masking. It does not improve masked thresholds, but can improve the detectability of small suprathreshold intensity increments. Anti-masking effects of both MEM and MOC systems should be reduced in cases of sensorineural hearing loss.
M C Liberman; J J Guinan
Related Documents :
3618186 - Distribution of viii nerve excitation by pure tones, derived by electrical stimulation ...
17086076 - Psychophysical assessment of spatial spread of excitation in electrical hearing with si...
8865636 - Intensity discrimination in the presence of random-frequency, multicomponent maskers an...
20884476 - Orientation tuning of contrast masking caused by motion streaks.
17048736 - Vision-for-action: the effects of object property discrimination and action state on af...
22622386 - Lack of neuromuscular origins of adaptation after a long-term stretching program.
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of communication disorders     Volume:  31     ISSN:  0021-9924     ISO Abbreviation:  J Commun Disord     Publication Date:    1998 Nov-Dec
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1999-02-22     Completed Date:  1999-02-22     Revised Date:  2007-11-14    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0260316     Medline TA:  J Commun Disord     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  471-82; quiz 483; 553     Citation Subset:  IM    
Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, USA.
Export Citation:
APA/MLA Format     Download EndNote     Download BibTex
MeSH Terms
Cochlea / physiology*
Ear, Middle / physiology*
Noise / adverse effects
Perceptual Masking*
Reflex / physiology
Stapedius / physiology
Grant Support

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

Previous Document:  An overview of neural function and feedback control in human communication.
Next Document:  Quantitative analysis of muscle fibre type and myosin heavy chain distribution in the frog hindlimb:...