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Fatty acids as biocompounds: their role in human metabolism, health and disease - a review. Part 2: Fatty Acid physiological roles and applications in human health and disease.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22286806     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Background. This is the second of two review parts aiming at describing the major physiological roles of fatty acids, as well as their applications in specific conditions related to human health. Results. The review included the current literature published in Pubmed up to March 2011. In humans, fatty acids are a principle energy substrate and structural components of cell membranes (phospholipids) and second messengers. Fatty acids are also ligands of nuclear receptors affecting gene expression. Longer-chain (LC) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid are precursors of lipid mediators such as eicosanoids (prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxanes), resolvins and neuroprotectins. Lipid mediators produced by EPA and DHA (LC n-3 PUFA; mainly found in oily fish) are considered as inflammation-resolving, and thus, fish oil has been characterised as antiinflammatory. Recommendations for EPA plus DHA intake from oily fish vary between 250-450 mg/day. Dietary reference values for fat vary between nutrition bodies, but mainly agree on a low total and saturated fat intake. The existing literature supports the protective effects of LC n-3 PUFA (as opposed to n-6 PUFA and saturated fat) in maternal and offspring health, cardiovascular health, insulin sensitivity, the metabolic syndrome, cancer, critically ill patients, and immune system disorders. Conclusion. Fatty acids are involved in multiple pathways and play a major role in health. Further investigation and a nutrigenomics approach to the effects of these biocompounds on health and disease development are imperative and highlight the importance of environmental modifications on disease outcome.
Authors:
Lefkothea Stella Kremmyda; Eva Tvrzicka; Barbora Stankova; Ales Zak
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia     Volume:  155     ISSN:  1213-8118     ISO Abbreviation:  Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub     Publication Date:  2011 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-01-30     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101140142     Medline TA:  Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub     Country:  Czech Republic    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  195-218     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Charles University in Prague, 1st Faculty of Medicine, 4th Department of Medicine, Czech Republic. eva.tvrzicka@lf1.cuni.cz.
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