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Fatty acid esters of steroids: synthesis and metabolism in lipoproteins and adipose tissue.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21277977     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
At the end of the last century ideas concerning the physiological role of the steroid fatty acid ester family were emerging. Estrogens, fatty acylated at C-17 hydroxyl group and incorporated in lipoproteins were proposed to provide antioxidative protection to these particles. A large number of studies involving non-estrogenic adrenal steroids, and their fatty acylated forms, demonstrated their lipoprotein-mediated transport into cells and subsequent intracellular activation, suggesting a novel transport mechanism for lipophilic steroid derivatives. After these important advances the main focus of interest has shifted away from C19 and C21 steroids to fatty acylated estrogens. However, interest in their lipoprotein-mediated transport has decreased due to only minute amounts of these derivatives being detected in circulating lipoproteins, and their antioxidative activity remaining unconfirmed under physiological circumstances. It now appears that the overwhelming majority of estradiol in postmenopausal women resides in adipose tissue, most of it in esterified form. This is poorly reflected in plasma levels which are very low. Recent data suggest that estrogen fatty acid esters probably represent a storage form. The future focus of investigation is likely to be on firstly, the enzymatic mechanisms regulating the esterification and de-esterification of estradiol and other steroids residing in adipose tissue and secondly, on the role of insulin and other hormones in the regulation of these enzymatic mechanisms. Thirdly, as a large proportion of fatty acid esterified C19 and C21 non-estrogenic steroids is transported in lipoproteins and as they are important precursors of androgens and estrogens, this field should be investigated further.
Authors:
Veera Vihma; Matti J Tikkanen
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-1-25
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1879-1220     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-1-31     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9015483     Medline TA:  J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Affiliation:
Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Helsinki; Division of Cardiology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, 00290 Helsinki; and Folkhälsan Research Center, 00290 Helsinki, Finland.
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