Document Detail

Fatty acid, amino acid, and trace mineral analyses of five weaning foods from Jos, Nigeria.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  12602934     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Five plant-based weaning foods (WF) (Dietrend, Jot-M, Soy, Ang, and Vic-T) locally prepared in Jos, Nigeria were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography, reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography, and atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma to determine their fatty acid (FA), amino acid, and trace mineral contents, respectively. Results of these direct analyses were compared to expected values derived from food composition tables prepared by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Additionally, results were compared against recommended nutrient values, using breast milk as the standard for FA content and recommended dietary allowances (RDA) for amino acid and mineral contents. The overall nutritional value of the five WF varied considerably and the quantities of particular nutrients determined by direct analysis differed markedly from those estimated using USDA food tables. Comparison of WF fatty acid composition relative to the RDA recommendations and a human milk standard revealed a much higher proportion of both linoleic (35-55 wt%) and alpha-linolenic acids (1%-7 wt%) relative to human milk lipids (11%-12% and 0.8%-0.9% wt, respectively); however, the WF were devoid of arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Soy contained the highest amounts of linoleic acid (59.7 mg/g) and alpha-linolenic acid (7.46 mg/g) compared to the other four WF (10.2-41.0 and 0.35-3.18 mg/g, respectively). The linoleic acid/alpha-linolenic acid ratio was within the recommended range (5:1 to 10:1) in only Jot-M (10:1) and Soy (8:1). Dietrend, Vic-T and Ang, contained linoleic/alpha-linolenic ratios of 12:1, 29:1, and 82:1, respectively. The Soy weaning food would provide the most protein (24.3 g/day), based on an estimated daily intake of 65 g of weaning food by a normal six-month-old infant, compared to Jot-M (11.9 g/day), Dietrend (11.7 g/day), Ang (8.07 g/day), and Vic-T (7.26 g/day). The protein RDA for children up to 1 year of age is 13-14 g/day. Comparison of the mineral contents of the WF to the RDAs for various minerals indicated that all five would provide suboptimal amounts of calcium (16 to 250 mg/day) and zinc (1.42 to 3.56 mg/day) compared to respective RDAs of 400 mg/day and 5 mg/day. These data show that the Soy weaning food is an excellent source of linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid, as well as being a good source of high quality protein. Jot-M and Dietrend provide useful amounts of the essential FA; however, it is advisable to reevaluate the composition of Ang and Vic-T to find ways to improve the linoleic/alpha-linolenic ratio of each and increase their total protein content. These results document the shortcomings of using published food composition tables based on foods in America when devising weaning foods based on ingredients in another part of the world.
Diane R Fernandez; Dorothy J Vanderjagt; M Williams; Y S Huang; Lu-Te Chuang; Mark Millson; Ronnee Andrews; Andrzej Pastuszyn; Robert H Glew
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Plant foods for human nutrition (Dordrecht, Netherlands)     Volume:  57     ISSN:  0921-9668     ISO Abbreviation:  Plant Foods Hum Nutr     Publication Date:  2002  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2003-02-26     Completed Date:  2003-06-12     Revised Date:  2008-11-21    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8803554     Medline TA:  Plant Foods Hum Nutr     Country:  Netherlands    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  257-74     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Amino Acids / analysis*
Biological Availability
Chromatography, Gas
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Fatty Acids / analysis*
Infant Food / analysis*
Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena*
Minerals / analysis*
Nutrition Policy
Nutritive Value
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Amino Acids; 0/Fatty Acids; 0/Minerals

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