Document Detail

Fatty acid phytyl ester synthesis in chloroplasts of Arabidopsis.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22623494     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
During stress or senescence, thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts are disintegrated, and chlorophyll and galactolipid are broken down, resulting in the accumulation of toxic intermediates, i.e., tetrapyrroles, free phytol, and free fatty acids. Chlorophyll degradation has been studied in detail, but the catabolic pathways for phytol and fatty acids remain unclear. A large proportion of phytol and fatty acids is converted into fatty acid phytyl esters and triacylglycerol during stress or senescence in chloroplasts. We isolated two genes (PHYTYL ESTER SYNTHASE1 [PES1] and PES2) of the esterase/lipase/thioesterase family of acyltransferases from Arabidopsis thaliana that are involved in fatty acid phytyl ester synthesis in chloroplasts. The two proteins are highly expressed during senescence and nitrogen deprivation. Heterologous expression in yeast revealed that PES1 and PES2 have phytyl ester synthesis and diacylglycerol acyltransferase activities. The enzymes show broad substrate specificities and can employ acyl-CoAs, acyl carrier proteins, and galactolipids as acyl donors. Double mutant plants (pes1 pes2) grow normally but show reduced phytyl ester and triacylglycerol accumulation. These results demonstrate that PES1 and PES2 are involved in the deposition of free phytol and free fatty acids in the form of phytyl esters in chloroplasts, a process involved in maintaining the integrity of the photosynthetic membrane during abiotic stress and senescence.
Felix Lippold; Katharina vom Dorp; Marion Abraham; Georg Hölzl; Vera Wewer; Jenny Lindberg Yilmaz; Ida Lager; Cyrille Montandon; Céline Besagni; Felix Kessler; Sten Stymne; Peter Dörmann
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2012-05-22
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Plant cell     Volume:  24     ISSN:  1532-298X     ISO Abbreviation:  Plant Cell     Publication Date:  2012 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-06-28     Completed Date:  2012-10-25     Revised Date:  2013-06-24    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9208688     Medline TA:  Plant Cell     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  2001-14     Citation Subset:  IM    
Institute of Molecular Physiology and Biotechnology of Plants, University of Bon, 53115 Bon, Germany.
Data Bank Information
Bank Name/Acc. No.:
GENBANK/U09399;  U60915
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MeSH Terms
Arabidopsis / genetics,  metabolism*
Arabidopsis Proteins / classification,  genetics,  metabolism*
Chloroplasts / genetics,  metabolism*
Esters / chemistry,  metabolism*
Fatty Acids / chemistry,  metabolism*
Molecular Sequence Data
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Arabidopsis Proteins; 0/Esters; 0/Fatty Acids

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