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Farm animal contact as risk factor for transmission of bovine-associated Salmonella subtypes.
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MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23171627     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Salmonellosis is usually associated with foodborne transmission. To identify risk from animal contact, we compared animal exposures of case-patients infected with bovine-associated Salmonella subtypes with those of control-patients infected with non-bovine-associated subtypes. We used data collected in New York and Washington, USA, from March 1, 2008, through March 1, 2010. Contact with farm animals during the 5 days before illness onset was significantly associated with being a case-patient (odds ratio 3.2, p = 0.0008), after consumption of undercooked ground beef and unpasteurized milk were controlled for. Contact with cattle specifically was also significantly associated with being a case-patient (odds ratio 7.4, p = 0.0002), after food exposures were controlled for. More cases of bovine-associated salmonellosis in humans might result from direct contact with cattle, as opposed to ingestion of foods of bovine origin, than previously recognized. Efforts to control salmonellosis should include a focus on transmission routes other than foodborne.
Kevin J Cummings; Lorin D Warnick; Margaret A Davis; Kaye Eckmann; Yrjö T Gröhn; Karin Hoelzer; Kathryn MacDonald; Timothy P Root; Julie D Siler; Suzanne M McGuire; Martin Wiedmann; Emily M Wright; Shelley M Zansky; Thomas E Besser
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Emerging infectious diseases     Volume:  18     ISSN:  1080-6059     ISO Abbreviation:  Emerging Infect. Dis.     Publication Date:  2012 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-11-22     Completed Date:  2013-04-26     Revised Date:  2013-07-11    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9508155     Medline TA:  Emerg Infect Dis     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1929-36     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4458, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Animals, Domestic
Case-Control Studies
Meat / microbiology
Middle Aged
Milk / microbiology
New York / epidemiology
Odds Ratio
Risk Factors
Salmonella / classification,  isolation & purification*
Salmonella Infections / epidemiology,  transmission*
Washington / epidemiology
Young Adult
Grant Support

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

Full Text
Journal Information
Journal ID (nlm-ta): Emerg Infect Dis
Journal ID (iso-abbrev): Emerging Infect. Dis
Journal ID (publisher-id): EID
ISSN: 1080-6040
ISSN: 1080-6059
Publisher: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Article Information
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Print publication date: Month: 12 Year: 2012
Volume: 18 Issue: 12
First Page: 1929 Last Page: 1936
PubMed Id: 23171627
ID: 3557873
Publisher Id: 11-0831
DOI: 10.3201/eid1812.110831

Farm Animal Contact as Risk Factor for Transmission of Bovine-associated Salmonella Subtypes Alternate Title:Farm Animal Contact and Salmonella Subtypes
Kevin J. Cummings
Lorin D. Warnick
Margaret A. Davis
Kaye Eckmann
Yrjö T. Gröhn
Karin Hoelzer
Kathryn MacDonald
Timothy P. Root
Julie D. Siler
Suzanne M. McGuire
Martin Wiedmann
Emily M. Wright
Shelley M. Zansky
Thomas E. Besser
Author affiliations: Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA (K.J. Cummings);
Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA (K.J. Cummings, L.D. Warnick, Y.T. Gröhn, K. Hoelzer, J.D. Siler, M. Wiedmann, E.M. Wright);
Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA (M.A. Davis, T.E. Besser);
Washington State Department of Health, Olympia, Washington, USA (K. Eckmann, K. MacDonald);
New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York, USA (T.P. Root, S.M. McGuire, S.M. Zansky)
Correspondence: Address for correspondence: Kevin J. Cummings, Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, 4458 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-4458, USA; email:

Medscape CME Activity

Medscape, LLC is pleased to provide online continuing medical education (CME) for this journal article, allowing clinicians the opportunity to earn CME credit.

This activity has been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education through the joint sponsorship of Medscape, LLC and Emerging Infectious Diseases. Medscape, LLC is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

Medscape, LLC designates this Journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)TM. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

All other clinicians completing this activity will be issued a certificate of participation. To participate in this journal CME activity: (1) review the learning objectives and author disclosures; (2) study the education content; (3) take the post-test with a 70% minimum passing score and complete the evaluation at; (4) view/print certificate.

Release date: November 14, 2012; Expiration date: November 14, 2013

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this activity, participants will be able to:

  • Analyze the epidemiology of salmonellosis.
  • Distinguish broad characteristics of patients with salmonellosis in the current study.
  • Assess risk factors for bovine-associated salmonellosis in the current study.

CME Editor

P. Lynne Stockton, VMD, MS, ELS(D), Technical Writer/Editor, Emerging Infectious Diseases. Disclosure: P. Lynne Stockton, VMD, MS, ELS(D), has disclosed no relevant financial relationships.

CME Author

Charles P. Vega, MD, Health Sciences Clinical Professor; Residency Director, Department of Family Medicine, University of California, Irvine. Disclosure: Charles P. Vega, MD, has disclosed no relevant financial relationships.


Disclosures: Kevin J. Cummings, DVM, PhD; Margaret A. Davis, DVM, MPH, PhD; M. Kaye Eckmann, BS; Yrjö T. Gröhn, DVM, PhD; Karin Hoelzer, PhD; Kathryn MacDonald, PhD, RN; Timothy P. Root; Julie D. Siler; Suzanne M. McGuire, RN, BSN, CCTC; Emily M. Wright, BS; Shelley M. Zansky, PhD; and Thomas E. Besser, DVM, PhD, DACVM, have disclosed no relevant financial relationships. Lorin D. Warnick, DVM, PhD, has disclosed the following relevant financial relationships: served as an advisor or consultant for Pfizer Animal Health. Martin Wiedmann, DVM, has disclosed the following relevant financial relationships: served as an advisor or consultant for Roka; owns stock, stock options, or bonds from Neogen, Sample6 Technologies.


Suggested citation for this article: Cummings KJ, Warnick LD, Davis MA, Eckmann K, Gröhn YT, Hoelzer K, et al. Farm animal contact as risk factor for transmission of bovine-associated Salmonella subtypes. Emerg Infect Dis [Internet]. 2012 Dec [date cited].

Article Categories:
  • CME
Article Categories:
  • Research
Article Categories:
  • Research

Keywords: Keywords: Salmonella, salmonellosis, subtypes, infectious disease transmission, risk factors, case-control study, public health, bacteria, farm animal contact, cattle, bovine.

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