Document Detail

Factors influencing regional patency and configuration of the human infant upper airway.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  3980366     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
To study factors influencing patency and configuration of the upper airway, we studied 11 infant cadavers using endoscopy and photography. In most cases, studies were performed shortly after death. The naso-, oro-, and hypopharynx and the larynx were studied. The upper airway was sealed at the nose and mouth so that transmural airway pressure could be raised or lowered. As pressure was lowered airway closure was seen in each of the four regions studied. With respect to closing pressure, the oropharynx was the most compliant region and the larynx the least compliant. In the naso-, oro-, and hypopharynx, lowering the transmural pressure was associated with inward movement of the anterior, posterior, and lateral airway walls. In the larynx, closure occurred by vocal cord opposition in the midline. Tension applied to the genioglossus and geniohyoid tongue muscles had an effect opposite to that of airway suction, causing a more or less symmetrical dilation of the naso- and oropharynx. When the airway was closed, additional tension was needed to produce airway reopening, suggesting that adhesion forces act to maintain airway closure. Neck flexion caused pharyngeal closure, and neck extension caused pharyngeal dilation. Secretions adherent to the walls of the airway visibly narrowed its lumen. The relevance of these findings for the obstructive sleep apnea and laryngomalacia syndromes is discussed.
W R Reed; J L Roberts; B T Thach
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985)     Volume:  58     ISSN:  8750-7587     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Appl. Physiol.     Publication Date:  1985 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1985-05-08     Completed Date:  1985-05-08     Revised Date:  2013-09-26    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8502536     Medline TA:  J Appl Physiol (1985)     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  635-44     Citation Subset:  IM    
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MeSH Terms
Airway Resistance*
Hypopharynx / physiology
Infant, Newborn*
Larynx / physiology*
Mucous Membrane / physiology
Nasopharynx / physiology
Oropharynx / physiology
Pharyngeal Muscles / physiology
Pharynx / physiology*
Stress, Mechanical
Grant Support

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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