Document Detail

Facilitation of intravenous nicotine self-administration in rats by a motivationally neutral sensory stimulus.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19756529     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: Intravenous infusions of nicotine appear to exert little primary reinforcing effects in adult rats but, instead, maintain self-administration behavior at least, in part, by increasing the intrinsic reinforcing effects of drug-paired sensory stimuli. The present study examined instead the impact of a motivationally neutral cue on self-administration. METHODS: Adult male Long-Evans rats were permitted to self-administer nicotine (0.015 mg/kg IV given over 30 s, 2 h/day) or saline presented with or without a sensory stimulus (light, white noise). Fixed and progressive ratio reinforcement schedules of nicotine reinforcement were tested. Experiment 2 determined whether noncontingent nicotine or mecamylamine (nicotinic antagonist) would induce lever pressing for either sensory stimulus. Experiment 3 tested whether the white noise stimulus alone could maintain responding after repeated pairing with self-administered nicotine. Finally, the sensory stimuli were assessed for possible aversive properties. RESULTS: Nicotine infusions alone were at best weakly reinforcing. The white noise stimulus, presented alone, was neither reinforcing nor aversive, whereas the white light appeared marginally reinforcing. Both stimuli, however, facilitated intravenous nicotine self-administration. Neither nicotine nor mecamylamine challenge rendered the white noise reinforcing. The white noise, after being self-administered with nicotine, failed to maintain self-administration behavior on its own. CONCLUSIONS: Even a motivationally neutral sensory stimulus, lacking detectable primary or secondary reinforcing properties, can facilitate self-administration of nicotine. Possibly, drug-paired stimuli provide a "response marker" or serve as a temporal bridge between the operant response and drug effect. Motivationally neutral stimuli may therefore serve to isolate primary reinforcing effects of nicotine.
Robert E Sorge; Vicki J Pierre; Paul B S Clarke
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2009-09-16
Journal Detail:
Title:  Psychopharmacology     Volume:  207     ISSN:  1432-2072     ISO Abbreviation:  Psychopharmacology (Berl.)     Publication Date:  2009 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-01-29     Completed Date:  2010-04-08     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7608025     Medline TA:  Psychopharmacology (Berl)     Country:  Germany    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  191-200     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, 3655 Promenade Sir William Osler, Montreal, QC, H3G1Y6, Canada.
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MeSH Terms
Conditioning, Operant
Infusions, Intravenous
Mecamylamine / pharmacology
Nicotine / administration & dosage*,  pharmacology
Nicotinic Agonists / administration & dosage*,  pharmacology
Nicotinic Antagonists / pharmacology
Rats, Long-Evans
Reinforcement (Psychology)*
Reinforcement Schedule
Self Administration
Grant Support
MOP-10516//Canadian Institutes of Health Research
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Nicotinic Agonists; 0/Nicotinic Antagonists; 54-11-5/Nicotine; 60-40-2/Mecamylamine

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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