Document Detail

FTY720 reduces post-ischemic brain lymphocyte influx but does not improve outcome in permanent murine cerebral ischemia.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21701599     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: The contribution of neuroinflammation and specifically brain lymphocyte invasion is increasingly recognised as a substantial pathophysiological mechanism after stroke. FTY720 is a potent treatment for primary neuroinflammatory diseases by inhibiting lymphocyte circulation and brain immigration. Previous studies using transient focal ischemia models showed a protective effect of FTY720 but did only partially characterize the involved pathways. We tested the neuroprotective properties of FTY720 in permanent and transient cortical ischemia and analyzed the underlying neuroimmunological mechanisms.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: FTY720 treatment resulted in substantial reduction of circulating lymphocytes while blood monocyte counts were significantly increased. The number of histologically and flow cytometrically analyzed brain invading T- and B lymphocytes was significantly reduced in FTY720 treated mice. However, despite testing a variety of treatment protocols, infarct volume and behavioural dysfunction were not reduced 7d after permanent occlusion of the distal middle cerebral artery (MCAO). Additionally, we did not measure a significant reduction in infarct volume at 24 h after 60 min filament-induced MCAO, and did not see differences in brain edema between PBS and FTY720 treatment. Analysis of brain cytokine expression revealed complex effects of FTY720 on postischemic neuroinflammation comprising a substantial reduction of delayed proinflammatory cytokine expression at 3d but an early increase of IL-1β and IFN-γ at 24 h after MCAO. Also, serum cytokine levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were increased in FTY720 treated animals compared to controls.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In the present study we were able to detect a reduction of lymphocyte brain invasion by FTY720 but could not achieve a significant reduction of infarct volumes and behavioural dysfunction. This lack of neuroprotection despite effective lymphopenia might be attributed to a divergent impact of FTY720 on cytokine expression and possible activation of innate immune cells after brain ischemia.
Arthur Liesz; Li Sun; Wei Zhou; Sönke Schwarting; Eva Mracsko; Markus Zorn; Henrike Bauer; Clemens Sommer; Roland Veltkamp
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2011-06-20
Journal Detail:
Title:  PloS one     Volume:  6     ISSN:  1932-6203     ISO Abbreviation:  PLoS ONE     Publication Date:  2011  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-06-24     Completed Date:  2011-10-14     Revised Date:  2013-06-28    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101285081     Medline TA:  PLoS One     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  e21312     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Neurology, University Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
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MeSH Terms
Brain Edema / drug therapy,  immunology,  metabolism
Brain Ischemia / drug therapy*,  immunology*,  metabolism
Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use*
Interleukin-6 / metabolism
Leukocytes / drug effects,  immunology,  metabolism
Lymphocytes / drug effects*,  immunology*,  metabolism
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Propylene Glycols / therapeutic use*
Sphingosine / analogs & derivatives*,  therapeutic use
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Immunosuppressive Agents; 0/Interleukin-6; 0/Propylene Glycols; 0/Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 123-78-4/Sphingosine; 3QN8BYN5QF/fingolimod

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