Document Detail

The FEMA GRAS assessment of phenethyl alcohol, aldehyde, acid, and related acetals and esters used as flavor ingredients.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  15950814     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
This publication is the ninth in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of intended use. Elements that are fundamental to the safety evaluation of flavor ingredients include exposure, structural analogy, metabolism, pharmacokinetics and toxicology. Flavor ingredients are evaluated individually and in the context of the available scientific information on the group of structurally related substances. Scientific data relevant to the safety evaluation of the use of phenethyl alcohol, aldehyde, acid, and related acetals and esters as flavoring ingredients is evaluated. The group of phenethylalcohol, aldehyde, acid, and related acetals and esters was reaffirmed as GRAS (GRASr) based, in part, on their self-limiting properties as flavoring substances in food, their rapid absorption, metabolic detoxication, and excretion in humans and other animals, their low level of flavor use, the wide margins of safety between the conservative estimates of intake and the no-observed-adverse effect levels determined from subchronic and chronic studies and the lack of significant genotoxic and mutagenic potential. This evidence of safety is supported by the fact that the intake of phenethyl alcohol, aldehyde, acid, and related acetals and esters as natural components of traditional foods is greater than their intake as intentionally added flavoring substances.
T B Adams; S M Cohen; J Doull; V J Feron; J I Goodman; L J Marnett; I C Munro; P S Portoghese; R L Smith; W J Waddell; B M Wagner;
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review     Date:  2005-01-26
Journal Detail:
Title:  Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association     Volume:  43     ISSN:  0278-6915     ISO Abbreviation:  Food Chem. Toxicol.     Publication Date:  2005 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2005-06-13     Completed Date:  2005-08-30     Revised Date:  2009-06-26    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8207483     Medline TA:  Food Chem Toxicol     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1179-206     Citation Subset:  IM    
Scientific Secretary to the FEMA Expert Panel, Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association, 1620 I Street, NW, Suite 925, Washington, DC 20006, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Acetaldehyde / analogs & derivatives*,  pharmacokinetics,  toxicity
Flavoring Agents / pharmacokinetics,  standards,  toxicity*
Food Industry*
Phenylacetates / pharmacokinetics,  toxicity*
Phenylethyl Alcohol / analogs & derivatives,  pharmacokinetics,  toxicity*
Toxicity Tests
United States
United States Food and Drug Administration / legislation & jurisprudence*,  standards
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Acetals; 0/Esters; 0/Flavoring Agents; 0/Phenylacetates; 103-82-2/phenylacetic acid; 122-78-1/phenylacetaldehyde; 60-12-8/Phenylethyl Alcohol; 75-07-0/Acetaldehyde

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