Document Detail

The FEMA GRAS assessment of furfural used as a flavour ingredient. Flavor and Extract Manufacturers' Association.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  9350219     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers' Association (FEMA) has assessed the safety of furfural for its continued use as a flavour ingredient. The safety assessment takes into account the current scientific information on exposure, metabolism, pharmacokinetics, toxicology, carcinogenicity and genotoxicity. Furfural was reaffirmed as GRAS (GRASr) as a flavour ingredient under conditions of intended use based on: (1) its mode of metabolic detoxication in humans; (2) its low level of flavour use compared with higher intake levels as a naturally occurring component of food; (3) the safety factor calculated from results of subchronic and chronic studies, (4) the lack of reactivity with DNA; and (5) the conclusion that the only statistically significant finding in the 2-year NTP bioassays, an increased incidence of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas in the high-dose group of male mice, was secondary to pronounced hepatotoxicity. Taken together, these data do not indicate any risk to human health under conditions of use as a flavour ingredient. This evidence of safety is supported by the occurrence of furfural as a natural component of traditional foods, at concentrations in the diet resulting in a 'natural intake' that is at least 100 times higher than the intake of furfural from use as a flavour ingredient.
T B Adams; J Doull; J I Goodman; I C Munro; P Newberne; P S Portoghese; R L Smith; B M Wagner; C S Weil; L A Woods; R A Ford
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association     Volume:  35     ISSN:  0278-6915     ISO Abbreviation:  Food Chem. Toxicol.     Publication Date:  1997 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1997-11-19     Completed Date:  1997-11-19     Revised Date:  2006-03-13    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8207483     Medline TA:  Food Chem Toxicol     Country:  ENGLAND    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  739-51     Citation Subset:  IM    
Flavor and Extract Manufacturers' Association, Washington, DC 20006, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Adenoma, Liver Cell / chemically induced,  pathology
Carcinogenicity Tests
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / chemically induced,  pathology
Drug Evaluation
Flavoring Agents* / chemistry,  pharmacokinetics,  toxicity
Food Additives / standards*
Furaldehyde* / chemistry,  pharmacokinetics,  toxicity
Liver Neoplasms / chemically induced,  pathology
Mutagenicity Tests
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Flavoring Agents; 0/Food Additives; 98-01-1/Furaldehyde

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