Document Detail

Extreme halophiles synthesize betaine from glycine by methylation.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  10896953     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Glycine betaine is a compatible solute, which is able to restore and maintain osmotic balance of living cells. It is synthesized and accumulated in response to abiotic stress. Betaine acts also as a methyl group donor and has a number of important applications including its use as a feed additive. The known biosynthetic pathways of betaine are universal and very well characterized. A number of enzymes catalyzing the two-step oxidation of choline to betaine have been isolated. In this work we have studied a novel betaine biosynthetic pathway in two phylogenically distant extreme halophiles, Actinopolyspora halophila and Ectothiorhodospira halochloris. We have identified a three-step series of methylation reactions from glycine to betaine, which is catalyzed by two methyltransferases, glycine sarcosine methyltransferase and sarcosine dimethylglycine methyltransferase, with partially overlapping substrate specificity. The methyltransferases from the two organisms show high sequence homology. E. halochloris methyltransferase genes were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli, and betaine accumulation and improved salt tolerance were demonstrated.
A Nyyssola; J Kerovuo; P Kaukinen; N von Weymarn; T Reinikainen
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Journal of biological chemistry     Volume:  275     ISSN:  0021-9258     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Biol. Chem.     Publication Date:  2000 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2000-08-24     Completed Date:  2000-08-24     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  2985121R     Medline TA:  J Biol Chem     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  22196-201     Citation Subset:  IM    
Danisco Cultor Innovation, Kantvik, Sokeritehtaantie 20, FIN-02460 Kantvik, Finland.
Data Bank Information
Bank Name/Acc. No.:
GENBANK/AF216281;  AF216282;  AF216283
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MeSH Terms
Amino Acid Sequence
Betaine / chemistry,  metabolism*
Glycine / chemistry,  metabolism*
Halobacteriales / metabolism*
Molecular Sequence Data
Sequence Alignment
Reg. No./Substance:
107-43-7/Betaine; 56-40-6/Glycine

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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