Document Detail


Extrapulmonary pneumocystosis.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  9227859     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Extrapulmonary pneumocystosis is an exceedingly rare complication of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). Prior to the advent of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) epidemic, only 16 cases of extrapulmonary pneumocystosis in individuals who were immunocompromised by a variety of underlying diseases had been reported. Since the beginning of the HIV-1 and related PCP epidemic, at least 90 cases of extrapulmonary pneumocystosis have been reported. This review briefly presents a history of the discovery of P. carinii and its recognition as a human pathogen, the controversy regarding its taxonomy, and the epidemiology of this organism. A more detailed analysis of the incidence of extrapulmonary pneumocystosis in HIV-1-infected individuals and its occurrence despite widespread prophylaxis for PCP with either aerosolized pentamidine or systemic dapsone-trimethoprim is presented. The clinical features of published cases of extrapulmonary pneumocystosis in non-HIV-1-infected individuals are summarized and contrasted with those in HIV-1 infected individuals. The diagnosis of extrapulmonary pneumocystosis is discussed, and because clinical microbiologists and pathologists are the key individuals in establishing the diagnosis, the characteristic microscopic morphology of P. carinii as its appears when stained with a variety of stains is presented and reviewed. The review concludes with a brief discussion of treatments for extrapulmonary pneumocystosis.
Authors:
V L Ng; D M Yajko; W K Hadley
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Clinical microbiology reviews     Volume:  10     ISSN:  0893-8512     ISO Abbreviation:  Clin. Microbiol. Rev.     Publication Date:  1997 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1997-08-25     Completed Date:  1997-08-25     Revised Date:  2009-11-18    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8807282     Medline TA:  Clin Microbiol Rev     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  401-18     Citation Subset:  IM; X    
Affiliation:
Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California San Francisco, USA. ng@pangloss.ucsf.edu
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Classification
HIV Infections / complications*,  epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Pneumocystis / pathogenicity*
Pneumocystis Infections* / epidemiology,  etiology,  therapy
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