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External influences on children's self-served portions at meals.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23295501     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
OBJECTIVE:Large portions promote intake among children, but little is known about the external influences of the eating environment on children's self-selected portion sizes. This research experimentally tested effects of the amount of entree available and serving spoon size on children's self-served entree portions and intakes at dinner meals. A secondary objective was to identify child and family predictors of self-served entree portion sizes.DESIGN:A 2 × 2 within-subjects design was used, in which the amount of a pasta entree available for self-serving (275 vs 550 g) and the serving spoon size (teaspoon vs tablespoon) were systematically varied. The serving bowl size and portion sizes of all other foods offered were held constant across conditions. Conditions were spaced 1 week apart and randomly assigned. Weighed self-served entree portions and food intakes as well as demographics, maternal feeding styles and child/maternal anthropometrics were measured.SUBJECTS:Participants were 60 ethnically diverse children aged 4-6 years and their mothers.RESULTS:Mixed models revealed that children served themselves 40% more entree when the amount available was doubled (P<0.0001) and 13% more when the serving spoon size was tripled (P<0.05). Serving spoon size and the amount of entree available indirectly influenced children's intake, with larger self-served portion sizes related to greater entree intakes (P<0.0001). Greater self-served portions and energy intakes at the meal were seen among those children whose mothers reported indulgent or authoritarian feeding styles (P<0.001).CONCLUSION:Children's self-served portion sizes at meals are influenced by size-related facets of the eating environment and reflect maternal feeding styles.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 8 January 2013; doi:10.1038/ijo.2012.216.
Authors:
J O Fisher; L L Birch; J Zhang; M A Grusak; S O Hughes
Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2013-1-08
Journal Detail:
Title:  International journal of obesity (2005)     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1476-5497     ISO Abbreviation:  Int J Obes (Lond)     Publication Date:  2013 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-1-8     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101256108     Medline TA:  Int J Obes (Lond)     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
Department of Public Health, Center for Obesity Research and Education, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
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