Document Detail

Exposure assessment through realistic laboratory simulation of a soccer stadium fire.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20708774     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
On Sunday April 13, 2008 a fire broke out on a grandstand in the Euroborg soccer stadium in Groningen The Netherlands. The polyamide chairs on the grandstand were set on fire and supporters were exposed to the emitted smoke which induced mild health effects. The Dutch government was concerned about potential health risks that such fires could have to exposed fans. Especially the exposure to toxic fumes was considered a risk because prior research has proven that large amounts of chemical compounds are emitted during the burning of chemical substances such as polyamide. Among these emitted compounds are HCN, CO, NO(x), NH(3) and volatile organic compounds. To study if supporters were exposed to hazardous chemical compounds we designed a laboratory controlled replica of a part of the grandstand of the Euroborg stadium to perform fire-experiments. This simulation of the fire under controlled circumstances proved that a wide variety of chemicals were emitted. Especially the emission of CO and NO(x) were high, but also the emission of formaldehyde might be toxicologically relevant. The emission of HCN and NH(3) were less than expected. Exposure assessment suggests that the exposure to NO(x) is the main health risk for the supporters that were present at the Euroborg fire.
N J C van Belle; E M van Putten; A C de Groot; V J A Meeussen; S Banus
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2010-08-13
Journal Detail:
Title:  Chemosphere     Volume:  81     ISSN:  1879-1298     ISO Abbreviation:  Chemosphere     Publication Date:  2010 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-10-04     Completed Date:  2010-12-07     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0320657     Medline TA:  Chemosphere     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  794-9     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM, IMG, PO Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
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MeSH Terms
Air Pollutants / analysis*,  chemistry
Aldehydes / analysis,  chemistry
Ammonia / analysis,  chemistry
Carbon Monoxide / analysis,  chemistry
Hazardous Substances / analysis*
Hydrogen Cyanide / analysis,  chemistry
Inhalation Exposure / analysis*
Ketones / analysis,  chemistry
Laboratory Techniques and Procedures
Models, Chemical*
Nitrogen Oxides / analysis,  chemistry
Particulate Matter / analysis,  chemistry
Risk Assessment
Volatile Organic Compounds / analysis,  chemistry
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Air Pollutants; 0/Aldehydes; 0/Hazardous Substances; 0/Ketones; 0/Nitrogen Oxides; 0/Particulate Matter; 0/Volatile Organic Compounds; 630-08-0/Carbon Monoxide; 74-90-8/Hydrogen Cyanide; 7664-41-7/Ammonia

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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